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1928 Confederate Veterans of Virginia Program and Ribbon

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Offered is a very clean program and ribbon from the 1928 annual reunion of the Confederate Veterans of Virginia held in Portsmouth, Virginia.  The ribbon is white.  Written in red ink on the ribbon is "Confederate Veteran - 1928".  The ribbon is approximately 5 13/16 inches long and approximately 1 1/2 inches wide.  The program is approximately 9 1/4 inches tall and 6 inches wide.  Written on the front cover is "Forty-first annual reunion Confederate Veterans of Virginia - Thirty-third annual reunion Sons of Confederate Veterans - Official Program - Portsmouth, Virginia - June 19, 20, 21, 1928".  Along with information on the reunion, there is also photos of Virginia Confederate veterans in the program.


7 Michigan Infantry 1912 Reunion Badge

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Offered is a super badge worn by a veteran of the 7th Michigan Infantry at their annual reunion held in 1912 at Lapeer, Michigan.  This neat badge has a metal hanger with "Lapeer, June 18, 1912" written in the middle on a celluloid strip.  A blue ribbon is attached to the hanger.  Written on the ribbon in a gold colored ink is "26th Annual Reunion of the 7th Mich. Infantry - Pres., Hohn G. McMillian - Vice-Pres., Jos. McDaniels - Sec.-Treas., Robert King".  A large celluloid disk is attached to the ribbon.  The base color of the disk is red and there are three photo likenesses of 7th Michigan Infantry members on the disk.  The three veterans on the disk are A.T. Heacock, J.W. Holmes, and C.A. Brink.  The badge was made by the Whitehead & Hoag Company of newark, New Jersey as noted in the back of the celluloid disk.  The badge is approximately 5 1/2 inches tall and approximately 2 3/8 inches wide.

Of the three men with a photo likeness on the celluloid disk, C.A. Brink was wounded at Gettysburg, A.T. Heacock was promoted to captain, and J.W. Holmes was discharged early in the war.

The 7th Michigan Volunteer Infantry Regiment lost 11 officers and 197 enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 3 officers and 186 enlisted men by disease. The regiment is honored by a monument at Gettysburg.

1861
August 22Organized at Monroe, Mich. and mustered in under Colonel Ira Rufus Grosvenor
September 5Left State for Washington, D.C. with 884 officers and enlisted men; Attached to Lander’s Brigade, Army of the Potomac
OctoberAttached to Lander’s Brigade, Stone’s Division, Army of the Potomac
September – DecemberGuard duty along the upper Potomac
October 22Near Edward’s Ferry
December 4Moved to Muddy Branch and duty there. Colonel Grosvenor took command of the brigade as senior colonel.
1862
MarchAttached to 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 2nd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac
March 12-15Moved to Harper’s Ferry, thence to Charleston and Berryville
March 24To Harper’s Ferry, then to Washington, D.C
March 27To the Virginia Peninsula
April to AugustPeninsula Campaign
April 5-May 4Siege of Yorktown
May 7-8West Point
May 31-June 1Battle of Fair Oaks or Seven Pines
June 25-July 1Seven days before Richmond
June 29Peach Orchard and Savage Station
June 30
White Oak Swamp and Glendale

Lieutenant Charles Hunt was wounded

July 1Malvern Hill
July 7Colonel Grosvenor resigned “due to the impoverished state of my health.”
July 14Lieutenant Norman J. Hall, USA (USMA 1859), former Acting AAG on the staff of Brigadier General John G. Barnard, was commissioned colonel of the 7th Michigan.
July 2 – August 16Duty at Harrison’s Landing
August 5Action at Malvern Hill
August 15-28Movement from Harrison’s Landing to Alexandria
August 28-31To Fairfax Court House; Cover Pope’s retreat from Bull Run to Washington.
September 4Captain Henry W. Nall was transferred to the 24th Michigan and appointed major.
September 6-22Maryland Campaign
September 16-17
Battle of Antietam

The 7th Michigan was commanded by Colonel Norman Hall. Colonel Hall took over the brigade as senior colonel when General Dana was wounded and was himself wounded. Lieutenant Colonel Baxter was wounded by this time, and Captain Charles J. Hunt took over the regiment.

From the brigade marker at Antietam:

Dana’s Brigade, following Gorman’s in column of attack, passed through the East Woods, crossed the Cornfield and the Hagerstown Pike, about 50 yards in rear of Gorman, and entered the West Woods, where its advance was checked about 40 yards east of this point.

Its left flank having been attacked and turned, by McLaws’ and Walker’s Divisions, it was compelled to retire.

A portion of the Brigade, with the 1st Minnesota Infantry, occupied a line near the Nicodemus house which it held for a time until, its flank having been again turned, it retired to the woods and fields east of the Hagerstown Pike.

September 22Moved to Harper’s Ferry, W. Va. and duty there
October 30-
November 17
Advance up the Loudon Valley and movement to Falmouth, Va.
December 11-15
Battle of Fredericksburg

The 7th Michigan was the first regiment to cross the Rappahannock River in pontoon boats under the fire of Confederate sharpshooters. It then drove the Confederate skirmishers from their cover, allowing a pontoon bridge to be constructed. Lieutenant Colonel Baxter was wounded in the attack.

December 11Forlorn hope to cross the Rappahannock at Fredericksburg
DecemberDuty at Falmouth, Va.
1863
April 27-May 6Chancellorsville Campaign
May 3Maryes Heights, Fredericksburg
May 3-4Salem Heights
June 11-July 24Gettysburg Campaign
July 1-3
Battle of Gettysburg

The 7th Michigan was commanded at Gettysburg by Lieutenant Colonel Amos Steele, Jr. while Colonel Hall commanded the brigade as senior colonel. Lieutenant Colonel Steele was killed on July 3rd, and Major Sylvanus W. Curtis took command. The 7th brought 165 men to the field, losing 21 killed and 44 wounded.

From the regimental monument near the Copse of Trees at Gettysburg: 

Regiment held this position during the engagement of July 2nd and 3rd, 1863. On the evening of the 2nd changed front to the left, meeting and aiding in driving back the enemy. On the 3rd assisted in repulsing Pickett’s Charge, changing front to the right and assaulting the advancing force in flank.

Present for duty 14 officers 151 men. Total 165. Casualties, 2 officers 19 men killed; 3 officers 41 men wounded. Total 65.

July 5-24Pursuit of Lee to Manassas Gap, Va.
August 20-
September 12
On detached duty at New York City during draft disturbances
October 9-22Rejoined army at Culpeper, Va. Bristoe Campaign
October 14Bristoe Station
November 7-8Advance to line of the Rappahannock
November 26-December 2Mine Run Campaign
DecemberAttached to 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 2nd Army Corps
DecemberAt Stevensburg
1864
May 4-June 15Campaign from the Rapidan to the James River
May 5-7
Battle of the Wilderness
May 8Laurel Hill
May 8-21
Battle of Spotsylvania Court House

Captain George W. LaPointe was wounded in the right knee.

May 10Po River
May 12Assault on the Salient, “Bloody Angle,”
May 23-26North Anna River
May 26-28On line of the Pamunkey
May 28-31Totopotomoy
June 3
Battle of Cold Harbor
June 4Colonel Hall was discharged due to chronic dysentery, chills and fever. He would die in May of 1867.
June 16-18First Assault on Petersburg
June 16Siege of Petersburg begins
June 22-23Jerusalem Plank Road, Weldon Railroad
July 27-29Demonstration on north side of the James River
July 27-28Deep Bottom
August 13-20Demonstration north of James at Deep Bottom
August 14-18Strawberry Plains
August 25Ream’s Station
October 13Captain George W. LaPointe of Company C was promoted to lieutenant colonel.
October 27-28
Boydton Plank Road, Hatcher’s Run
November 18Lieutenant Colonel George W. La Pointe was promoted to colonel but was not mustered due to the reduced sized of the regiment.
1865
February 5-7Dabney’s Mills, Hatcher’s Run
March 25Watkins’ House
March 28-April 9Appomattox Campaign
March 30-31Boydton Road
March 31Crow’s House
April 2Fall of Petersburg
April 3-9Pursuit of Lee
April 6Sailor’s Creek
April 7High Bridge and Farmville
April 9
Appomattox Court House

Surrender of Lee and his army.

April 10 – May 2At Burkesville
May 2-12Moved to Washington, D.C.
May 23Grand Review
June 16-22Moved to Louisville, Ky., then to Jeffersonville, Ind.
July 5Mustered out


2 Michigan Cavalry 1909 Reunion Badge

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Offered is a nice badge worn by veterans of the 2nd Michigan Cavalry at their 1909 reunion.  The badge has a brass colored metal circular disk that holds a celluloid photo likeness of a lieutenant.  A yellow and blue ribbon is attached to the pin on the back of the badge.  Written around the lieutenant is "1861 - 65 - 2nd Mich. Cav. - 1909".  The badge was made by the Whitehead & Hoag Company of Newark, New Jersey as noted by the manufacturer's label attached to the pin.  


2nd Michigan Cavalry
in the American Civil War

Regimental History
Second Michigan Cavalry. — Cols., Gordon Granger, Archibald P. Campbell; Lieut. -Cols., William C. Davies, Frederick Fowler, Benjamin Smith, Thomas W. Johnston; Majs., Robert H. G. Minty, Charles P. Babcock, Frank W. Dickey, John C. Godley, Leonidas S. Scranton, Marshall J. Dickinson, Harrison F. Nicholson, Charles N. Baker. This regiment was organized at Grand Rapids and was mustered in Oct. 2, 1861. It left the state on Nov. 14, was stationed at Benton barracks, St. Louis, was engaged in skirmishes at Point Pleasant, Tipton and New Madrid, participated in the siege of Island No. 10, and then moved with Pope's army to Mississippi. It was in the engagements at Pine hill, Monterey and Farmington, and the siege of Corinth. Col. Granger was made brigadier-general and was succeeded by Philip H. Sheridan as colonel, but the latter was not mustered in as such. The regiment was in the engagements at Booneville, Blackland, and Baldwin, in June, 1862, and was in a spirited fight at Booneville July 1, where 7,000 of Chalmer's cavalry were repulsed by six companies, numbering less than 500 men. This was one of the greatest minor victories of the war. The 2nd Mich. and 2nd Ia. cavalry followed the enemy for 20 miles, capturing a large amount of arms and clothing. The regiment was engaged at Rienzi in August, when a largely superior force was defeated and dispersed and many prisoners were captured. Col. Sheridan was made a brigadier- general and Lieut. -Col. Campbell was appointed colonel. The regiment was engaged at the battle of Perryville, Ky., then at Harrodsburg, Lancaster and the Rockcastle river. In Dec, 1862, and Jan., 1863, it was in a raid in eastern Tennessee, being engaged at Blountville, Zollicoffer, Wartrace, Jonesville, Bacon creek and Glasgow. In March it was engaged at Milton, Cainsville, Spring Hill, Columbia, Hillsboro and Brentwood. The engagement at Columbia was against a much larger force, but two battalions of the 2nd Mich. cavalry by tremendous efforts, saved the wagon trains, which were in charge of the 18th Ohio cavalry. The regiment fought at McGarvick's ford in April, and during the summer was engaged at Triune, Rover, Middletown, Shelbyville, Elk river ford, and Decherd. It participated at Chickamauga, holding an important point against an enemy, and in October was engaged in the pursuit of Wheeler's cavalry, being in action at Anderson's cross-roads. It fought at Sparta, Dandridge and Mossy creek, in December, and at Dandridge and Pigeon river in Jan., 1864. While at Cleveland, Tenn., 326 reenlisted as veterans and took a furlough, rejoining the regiment in July. On the Atlanta campaign the regiment fought at Dug gap, Red Clay, the Etowah river and Acworth, and joined Gen. Thomas' army in Tennessee. It met and defeated the enemy at Campbellville and Franklin in September; was engaged at Cypress river in October, where a force four times that of the Union army was defeated; participated at Raccoon ford, and during November was engaged at Shoal creek, Lawrenceburg, Campbellville, Columbia, Spring Hill and the battle of Franklin. During December it was engaged at Nashville, Richland creek, Pulaski and Sugar creek, and in 1865 fought at Corinth, Tuscaloosa, Trion, Bridgeville and Talladega. It was in camp at Macon from May 1 until July 17, detachments being sent to garrison Perry, Thomaston, Barnesville, Forsyth and Milledgeville. The regiment was mustered out Aug. 17, 1865. Its original strength was 1,163; gain 1,262; total, 2,425. Loss by death, 338. 

1 New Jersey Brigade Crampton Pass 50th Anniversary Badge

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A great badge worn by a veteran of the First New Jersey Brigade at the 50th anniversary of the battle of Crampton Pass in 1912.  The badge has a heavy metal backing with an insert which says "VETERAN".  A blue, beige, and blue ribbon is attached to the hanger.  Written on the ribbon is "50th Anniversary Battle of Crampton Pass - 31st Reunion of Kearny's First New Jersey Brigade Society - Camden, N.J. - Sept. 14, 1912".  The likeness of a Sixth Corp badge is in the center of the ribbon.   The badge was made by the Sommer Badge Manufacturing Company of Newark, New Jersey as noted on the makers label attached to the back of the ribbon.  There is a small piece of museum quality acid free tapeon the upper part of the back ribbon.  The badge is approximately 6 1/8 inches tall and 2 3/8 inches wide. 

First New Jersey Brigade

Through the course of the Civil War, the brigade was composed entirely of units from New Jersey, the only Union brigade during the war to be constituted as such. Its origins were on May 4, 1861, when New Jersey was directed by the Federal government to fill a quota of three infantry regiments to serve a three-year term of enlistment. Recruitment took place for the new regiments all over the state, and on May 21, 1861, the 1st New Jersey Volunteer Infantry was mustered into the Union Army at Camp Olden in Trenton, New Jersey, under Maj. Theodore T. S. Laidley of the United States Regular Army. The 1st New Jersey was then followed into Federal service by the 2nd New Jersey Volunteer Infantry (May 28, 1861) and the 3rd New Jersey Volunteer Infantry.

On June 28, 1861, the three newly created three-year regiments began the journey to Virginia, where in June they were joined with a brigade of three-month enlistment New Jersey Militia regiments to form a division commanded by Brig. Gen. Theodore Runyon. This was the first time the New Jersey regiments officially formed the brigade. During the First Bull Run Campaign, most of the brigade saw service in the field guarding train hubs, supply depots and roadways, being considered too "green" to be reliable in combat. However, a few companies of the 1st and 2nd New Jersey Infantries were directed to help stem the retreat at Centreville, Virginia, after the Confederates routed General Irvin McDowell's forces at Manassas, Virginia, on July 21, 1861. They were unsuccessful, and many officers and men retreated in the rout as well.

In August 1861, the 4th New Jersey Volunteer Infantry was recruited and added to the First New Jersey Brigade after its muster into service. From that point on, the four regiments and their later remnants would serve together until the end of the war and their final discharge.

Later service

As the war progressed, more regiments were added to the brigade, but in keeping with its tradition, they were New Jersey units. In September 1862, the nine-month enlistment unit 23rd New Jersey Volunteer Infantry and the three-year 15th New Jersey Volunteer Infantry were added, with the 23rd New Jersey serving until June 1863 and the 15th New Jersey serving until the end of the war. On April 19, 1864, the 10th New Jersey Volunteer Infantry "Olden's Legion" was added. In March 1865 the 40th New Jersey Volunteer Infantry—the last raised by the state—was brigaded with the original units.

The brigade saw its first pitched battle rather late, as it fought in the June 27, 1862, Battle of Gaines' Mill during the Seven Days Battles. There it sustained heavy casualties, with most of the 4th New Jersey being captured by Confederate forces. It then fought in the Second Bull Run Campaign, where it blundered into the entire Confederate army corps commanded by Major General Stonewall Jackson, and at Crampton's Gap during the Battle of South Mountain, where it redeemed its honor by making a triumphant charge up the hill. Later engagements included Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, the Wilderness, Spotsylvania,Cold Harbor, Strasburg, Fisher's Hill, and Cedar Creek.

Regiments

First New Jersey Infantry
Service in brigade: June 1861–June 3, 1864
153 killed or died of wounds and 99 died of disease or accidents

Second New Jersey Infantry
Service in brigade: June 1861–May 21, 1864
96 killed or died of wounds and 69 died of disease or accidents

Third New Jersey Infantry
Service in brigade: June 1861–June 3, 1864
157 killed or died of wounds and 81 died of disease or accidents

Fourth New Jersey Infantry
Service in brigade: June 1861–June 22, 1865
161 killed or died of wounds and 105 died of disease or accidents

Tenth New Jersey Infantry "Olden Legion"
Service in brigade: April 19, 1864–June 22, 1865
93 killed or died of wounds and 190 Died of disease or accidents

Fifteenth New Jersey Infantry "Fighting Fifteenth"
Service in brigade: September 30, 1862–June 22, 1865
240 killed or died of wounds and 132 died of disease or accidents.

Twenty-Third New Jersey Infantry
Service in brigade: October 8, 1862–June 27, 1863
35 killed or died of wounds and 55 died of disease or accidents

Fortieth New Jersey Infantry
Service in brigade: February 2, 1865–July 13, 1865
2 killed or died of wounds and 17 died of disease or accidents

Commanders

The brigade's first commander was Brig. Gen. Philip Kearny, whose training and discipline molded the regiments into an effective fighting unit. He was succeeded by George W. Taylor, who was Colonel of the 3rd New Jersey. Taylor was promoted to brigadier general soon after assuming command of the brigade. After his mortal wounding at the Second Battle of Bull Run, the leadership of the brigade went to Alfred Thomas Torbert, who was serving as Colonel of the 1st New Jersey Volunteer Infantry. Subsequent commanders were Col. Henry Brown (3rd New Jersey), Col. William H. Penrose (15th New Jersey), and Capt. Baldwin Hufty (4th New Jersey).

Medal of Honor recipients

Six soldiers from the First New Jersey Brigade received the Medal of Honor for bravery:

  • 1st Lieutenant William Brant, Jr. - 1st New Jersey Veterans Battalion
  • Corporal Charles F. Hopkins - 1st New Jersey Volunteer Infantry
  • Corporal Edmund English - 2nd New Jersey Volunteer Infantry
  • Sergeant John P. Beech - 4th New Jersey Volunteer Infantry
  • Captain Forrester L. Taylor - 23rd New Jersey Volunteer Infantry
  • Private Frank E. Fesq - 40th New Jersey Volunteer Infantry
The Battle of Crampton Pass

In the aftermath of his great victory at Second Bull Run, Robert E. Lee was determined to launch an invasion of the North. He hoped that a similar victory on northern soil would weaken the North’s resolve, and possibly encourage Maryland to rise and join the Confederacy. Lee convinced Jefferson Davies to approve his plan, and at the start of September Lee’s victorious army crossed the Potomac.

Once in the north, Lee became concerned about the 13,000 strong Federal garrison of Harper’s Ferry. He decided that he could not risk leaving that garrison in his rear. To capture it he took the decision to split his army. Two thirds of the army, under Stonewall Jackson, was sent to capture Harper’s Ferry, while he remained further north with the rest of the army. Lee was taking a massive risk. He assumed that the Federal army defeated at Bull Run would take weeks to be recover, especially with George McClellan restored to command. He had repeated demonstrated a slow, cautious attitude during the Peninsula Campaign, and Lee expected more of the same.

He was wrong. McClellan had taken over a beaten army, but not a demoralised or unorganised one. McClellan soon had an army 70,000 strong on the move towards Lee. He also had a stroke of luck when a copy of Lee’s order for the move against Harper’s Ferry was discovered on 13 September. McClellan received this piece of luck at Frederick, less than twenty miles from Harper’s Ferry, where the garrison was still holding out.

Even with this information in hand, McClellan still did not move quickly. He was nearly always convinced that whatever army he commanded was badly outnumbered – here he was convinced that Lee had at least 100,000 men, twice the real number. Accordingly, he did nothing on 13 September other than issue orders for a movement on the following day.

The main barrier that faced McClellan was South Mountain. This mountain runs north from the Potomac, reaching the river just east of Harper’s Ferry. McClellan’s men would have to force their way through Confederate held passes before they could engage Lee or go to the relief of Harper’s Ferry. Worse for the garrison of Harper’s Ferry, McClellan decided to make his main attack at Turner’s and Fox’s Gaps (Battle of South Mountain). Success here would bring McClellan up against Lee’s smaller section of the Confederate army.

A smaller force, 12,000 men under Major-General William B. Franklin, was sent to Crampton’s Gap, further south. This force might not have been big enough to defeat Jackson’s entire force around Harper’s Ferry, but it was easily big enough to deal with that part of Jackson’s force that had remained north of the Potomac, which was no more than 8,000 strong, and thus to rescue the garrison. However, Crampton’s Gap was also defended. First, Franklin would need to fight his way through the pass.

This should not have been a problem. He was opposed by three brigades from the force that had been sent against Harper’s Ferry, a total of 2,200 men. Even by his own account, Reynolds was able to get 6,500 men into action at Crampton’s Gap. Despite this numerical advantage it took Reynolds most of 14 September to fight his way through the pass. He suffered 533 casualties during the battle (113 dead, 418 wounded and 2 missing), and probably inflicted twice that many (he captured 400 prisoners). However, the victory came too late in the day to achieve its aim. The next morning, when Reynolds made a tentative move towards Harper’s Ferry, he decided that he was too weak to attack the Confederate forces north of the river. In any case it was by then too late. Harper’s Ferry surrendered early on the morning of 15 September.


1930 SCV National Biloxi, Mississippi Badge

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A nice badge worn at the 1930 United Confederate Veterans/Sons of Confederate Veterans Reunion held in Biloxi, Mississippi.  The hanger is a bronze type material.  It is in the shape of the Gulf Counties of Mississippi.  Written on the hanger is "Hancock - Harrison -Jackson, Mississippi - The Magnolia State".  A red and white ribbon is attached to the hanger.  The bottom drop which is attached to the ribbon is in a round shape.  The drop has a sailing boat image in the middle of the drop.  Written around the ship is "40th Annual Confederate Reunion, Biloxi, Miss - S.C.V. - June 3-4-5-6, 1930".The badge is made by the Greenduck Company, Chicago as noted on the bottom of the drop.The badge is approximately 4 inches long and 2 inches wide.


Major General John F. Reynolds Gettysburg Monument Pin Back

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A great pin back with the Gettysburg monument of Major General John F. Reynolds in the middle.  Around the monument is written "Gen. John F. Reynolds - Lancaster, PA.".  The pin back is approximately 1 1/4 inches wide.  The pin back was made by the Sommer badge Manufacturing Company, Newark, New Jersey.  


John F. Reynolds

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John Reynolds
GenJFRenyolds.jpg
Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds
Born(1820-09-20)September 20, 1820
Lancaster, Pennsylvania
DiedJuly 1, 1863(1863-07-01) (aged 42)
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
Place of burialLancaster Cemetery, Lancaster, Pennsylvania
AllegianceUnited States of America
Union
Service/branchUnited States Army
Union Army
Years of service1841–1863
RankUnion Army major general rank insignia.svg Major General
Commands heldI Corps, Army of the Potomac
Battles/wars

Mexican–American War

American Civil War

John Fulton Reynolds (September 20, 1820 – July 1, 1863)[1] was a career United States Army officer and a general in the American Civil War. One of the Union Army's most respected senior commanders, he played a key role in committing the Army of the Potomac to the Battle of Gettysburg and was killed at the start of the battle.

Reynolds was born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, one of nine surviving children of John Reynolds (1787–1853) and Lydia Moore Reynolds (1794–1843). Two of his brothers were James LeFevre Reynolds, Quartermaster General of Pennsylvania, and Rear Admiral Will Reynolds.[2] Prior to his military training, Reynolds studied in nearby Lititz, about 6 miles (9.7 km) from his home in Lancaster. Next he attended a school in Long Green, Maryland, and finally the Lancaster County Academy.[3]

Reynolds was nominated to the United States Military Academy in 1837 by Senator James Buchanan, a family friend, and graduated 26th of 50 cadets in the class of 1841. He was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the 3rd U.S. Artillery, assigned to Fort McHenry. From 1842 to 1845 he was assigned to St. Augustine, Florida, and Fort Moultrie, South Carolina, before joining Zachary Taylor's army at Corpus Christi, Texas, for the Mexican–American War. He was awarded two brevet promotions in Mexico—to captain for gallantry at Monterrey and to major for Buena Vista, where his section of guns prevented the Mexican cavalry from outflanking the American left.[4] During the war, he became friends with fellow officers Winfield Scott Hancock and Lewis A. Armistead.

On his return from Mexico, Reynolds was assigned to Fort Preble, Maine, New Orleans, Louisiana, and Fort Lafayette, New York. He was next sent west to Fort Orford, Oregon, in 1855, and participated in the Rogue River Wars of 1856 and the Utah War with the Mormons in 1857-58. He was the Commandant of Cadets at West Point from September 1860 to June 1861, while also serving as an instructor of artillery, cavalry, and infantry tactics. During his return from the West, Reynolds became engaged to Katherine May Hewitt. Since they were from different religious denominations—Reynolds was a Protestant, Hewitt a Catholic—the engagement was kept a secret and Hewitt's parents did not learn about it until after Reynolds' death.[5]

Civil War

Early assignments and the Seven Days[edit]

Soon after the start of the Civil War, Reynolds was offered the position as aide-de-camp to Lt. Gen. Winfield Scott, but declined. He was appointed lieutenant colonel of the 14th U.S. Infantry, but before he could engage with that unit, he was promoted to brigadier general on August 20, 1861, and ordered to report to Washington, D.C. While in transit, his orders were changed to report to Cape Hatteras Inlet, North Carolina. Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan intervened with the Secretary of War to get his orders changed once again, assigning him to the newly formed Army of the Potomac. His first assignment was with a board that examined the qualifications of volunteer officers, but he soon was given command of a brigade of Pennsylvania Reserves.[6]

As McClellan's army moved up the Virginia Peninsula in the 1862 Peninsula Campaign, Reynolds occupied and became military governor of Fredericksburg, Virginia. His brigade was then ordered to join the V Corps at Mechanicsville, just before the start of the Seven Days Battles. The brigade was hit hard by the Confederate attack of June 26 at the Battle of Beaver Dam Creek, but their defensive line held and Reynolds later received a letter of commendation from his division commander, Brig. Gen. George A. McCall.[7]

The Confederate attack continued on June 27 and Reynolds, exhausted from the Battle of Gaines' Mill and two days without sleep, was captured in Boatswain's Swamp, Virginia. Thinking he was in a place of relative safety, he fell asleep and was not aware that his retreating troops left him behind. He was extremely embarrassed when brought before the Confederate general of the capturing troops; D.H. Hill was an Army friend and colleague from before the war. Hill allegedly told him, "Reynolds, do not feel so bad about your capture, it is the fate of wars."[8] Reynolds was transported to Richmond and held at Libby Prison, but was quickly exchanged on August 15 (for Lloyd Tilghman).[9]

Second Bull Run, Fredericksburg, and Chancellorsville

J Renyolds.jpg

Upon his return, Reynolds was given command of the Pennsylvania Reserves Division, whose commander, McCall, had been captured just two days after Reynolds. The V Corps joined the Army of Virginia, under Maj. Gen. John Pope, at Manassas. On the second day of the Second Battle of Bull Run, while most of the Union Army was retreating, Reynolds led his men in a last-ditch stand on Henry House Hill, site of the great Union debacle at First Bull Run the previous year. Waving the flag of the 2nd Reserves regiment, he yelled, "Now boys, give them the steel, charge bayonets, double quick!" His counterattack halted the Confederate advance long enough to give the Union Army time to retreat in a more orderly fashion, arguably the most important factor in preventing its complete destruction.[10]

At the request of Pennsylvania Governor Andrew G. Curtin, Reynolds was given command of the Pennsylvania Militia during General Robert E. Lee's invasion of Maryland. Generals McClellan and Joseph Hooker complained that "a scared governor ought not to be permitted to destroy the usefulness of an entire division," but the governor prevailed and Reynolds spent two weeks in Pennsylvania drilling old men and boys, missing the Battle of Antietam. However, he returned to the Army of the Potomac in late 1862 and assumed command of the I Corps. One of his divisions, commanded by Brig. Gen. George G. Meade, made the only breakthrough at the Battle of Fredericksburg, but Reynolds did not reinforce Meade with his other two divisions and the attack failed; Reynolds did not receive a clear understanding from Brig. Gen. William B. Franklin about his role in the attack.[10] After the battle, Reynolds was promoted to major general of volunteers, with a date of rank of November 29, 1862.[11]

At the Battle of Chancellorsville in May 1863, Reynolds clashed with Maj. Gen. Hooker, his predecessor at I Corps, but by this time the commander of the Army of the Potomac. Hooker originally placed the I Corps on the extreme left of the Union line, southeast of Fredericksburg, hoping to threaten and distract the Confederate right. On May 2, Hooker changed his mind and ordered the corps to conduct a daylight march nearly 20 miles to swing around and become the extreme right flank of the army, to the northwest of the XI Corps. The march was delayed by faulty communications and by the need to move stealthily to avoid Confederate contact. Thus, the I Corps was not yet in position when the XI Corps was surprised and overrun by Lt. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's flank attack, a setback that destroyed Hooker's nerve for offensive action. Hooker called a council of war on May 4 in which Reynolds voted to proceed with the battle, but although the vote was three to two for offensive action, Hooker decided to retreat. Reynolds, who had gone to sleep after giving his proxy vote to Meade, woke up and muttered loud enough for Hooker to hear, "What was the use of calling us together at this time of night when he intended to retreat anyhow?" The 17,000-man I Corps was not engaged at Chancellorsville and suffered only 300 casualties during the entire campaign.[12]

Reynolds joined several of his fellow officers in urging that Hooker be replaced, in the same way he had spoken out against Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside after Fredericksburg. On the previous occasion, Reynolds wrote in a private letter, "If we do not get some one soon who can command an army without consulting 'Stanton and Halleck' at Washington, I do not know what will become of this Army." President Abraham Lincoln met with Reynolds in a private interview on June 2 and is believed to have asked him whether he would consider being the next commander of the Army of the Potomac. Reynolds supposedly replied that he would be willing to accept only if he were given a free hand and could be isolated from the political influences that had affected the Army commanders throughout the war. Unable to comply with his demands, Lincoln promoted the more junior George G. Meade to replace Hooker on June 28.[13]

Gettysburg

"The Fall of Reynolds" – drawing of Reynolds' death at Gettysburg

On the morning of July 1, 1863, Reynolds was commanding the "left wing" of the Army of the Potomac, with operational control over the I, III, and XI Corps, and Brig. Gen. John Buford's cavalry division. Buford occupied the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, and set up light defensive lines north and west of the town. He resisted the approach of two Confederate infantry brigades on the Chambersburg Pike until the nearest Union infantry, Reynolds' I Corps, began to arrive. Reynolds rode out ahead of the 1st Division, met with Buford, and then accompanied some of his soldiers, probably from Brig. Gen. Lysander Cutler's brigade, into the fighting at Herbst's Woods. Troops began arriving from Brig. Gen. Solomon Meredith's Iron Brigade, and as Reynolds was supervising the placement of the 2nd Wisconsin, he yelled at them, "Forward men! For God's sake forward!" At that moment he fell from his horse with a wound in the back of the upper neck, or lower head,[14] and died almost instantly. Command passed to his senior division commander, Maj. Gen. Abner Doubleday.

For the Union side, the death of John Reynolds meant more than the loss of an inspiring leader; it also removed from the equation the one person with enough vision and sense of purpose to manage this battle.
Noah Andre Trudeau, Gettysburg: A Testing of Courage[15]

The loss of General Reynolds was keenly felt by the army. He was loved by his men and respected by his peers. There are no recorded instances of negative comments made by his contemporaries.[16] Historian Shelby Foote wrote that many considered him "not only the highest ranking [sic] but also the best general in the army."[17] His death had a more immediate effect that day, however. By ratifying Buford's defensive plan and engaging his I Corps infantry, Reynolds essentially selected the location for the Battle of Gettysburg for Meade, turning a chance meeting engagement into a massive pitched battle, committing the Army of the Potomac to fight on that ground with forces that were initially numerically inferior to the Confederates that were concentrating there. In the command confusion that followed Reynolds' death, the two Union corps that reached the field were overwhelmed and forced to retreat through the streets of Gettysburg to the high ground south of town, where they were rallied by his old friend, Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock.[18]

Possible location of General Reynolds' death

Reynolds' body was immediately transported from Gettysburg to Taneytown, Maryland, and then to his birthplace, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, where he was buried on July 4, 1863.[6] Befitting his importance to the Union and his native state, he is memorialized by three statues in Gettysburg National Military Park (an equestrian statue on McPherson Ridge, one by John Quincy Adams Ward in the National Cemetery, and one on the Pennsylvania Memorial),[19] as well as one in front of the Philadelphia City Hall.[20]

Kate Hewitt had agreed with Reynolds that if he were killed in the war and they could not marry, she would join a convent. After he was buried, she traveled to Emmitsburg, Maryland, and joined the St. Joseph Central House of the Order of the Daughters of Charity.[21]

Death controversies

Historians disagree on the details of Reynolds' death, including the specific time (either 10:15 a.m. or 10:40–10:50 a.m.), the exact location (on East McPherson Ridge, near the 2nd Wisconsin Infantry, or West McPherson Ridge, near the 19th Indiana), and the source of the bullet (a Confederate infantryman, a Confederate sharpshooter, or friendly fire). One primary source was Sergeant Charles Henry Veil, his orderly and unit Color Guard, who described the events in a letter in 1864 and then contradicted some of the details in another letter 45 years later. A letter from Reynolds' sister, Jennie, stated that the wound had a downward trajectory from the neck, implying that he was shot from above, presumably a sharpshooter in a tree or barn. Historians Bruce Catton and Glenn Tucker make firm assertions that a sharpshooter was responsible; Stephen Sears credits volley fire from the 7th Tennessee against the 2nd Wisconsin; Edwin Coddington cites the sister's letter and finds the sharpshooter theory to be partly credible, but leans towards Sears' conclusion; Harry W. Pfanz agrees that the location was behind the 2nd Wisconsin, but makes no judgment about the source of the fire. Steve Sanders, writing in Gettysburg magazine, suggested the possibility of friendly fire based on some accounts, and concludes that it is as equally likely as enemy fire.[22]


Image result for gen. john reynolds monument, lancaster, pa


1901 First Defender Monument Dedication Reading, Pennsylvania Pin Back

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A super pin back commerating the 1901 First Defenders Monument Dedication on July 4, 1901 at Reading, Pennsylvania.  The pin back is approximately 1 1/4 inches wide.  The monument is in the middle of the pin back.  A U.S. flag is on the right side and a Union officer is on the left side.  Written around the edge of the pin back is "Dedication First Defenders Monument - July 4, 1901".  The pin back was made by the Keystone Badge Company of Reading, Pennsylvania. as noted on the back of the pin back.


Civil War Musicians National Association Pin Back

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A nice pin ack worn by a member of the Civil War Musicians National Association.  The pin back is approximately 1 1/4 inches wide.  A drum with crossed sticks is in the middle of the pin back.  The pin back was made by the M.C. lilley Company of Columbus, Ohio as noted on the back of the pin back.


1902 Wichita, Kansas Blue - Gray Reunion Pin Back

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A wonderful, large pin back from the 1902 Wichita, Kansas Blue - Gray reunion held on September 22 - 27, 1902.  This great pin back has an armed Confederate soldier shaking hands with an armed Union soldier.  The U.S. flag is in the back ground.  Written around the edge of the pin back is "19th Annual State Reunion - Wichita, Kan. Sept. 22d - 27th, 1902".  Also on the edge of the pin back are sun flowers.  The pin back is approximately 1 3/4 inches wide.  The pin back was made by the Baltimore Badge & Novelty COmpany, Baltimore, Maryland.  The pin back is very clean and nice.

25 Massachusetts Colonel Josiah Pickett Pin Back

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A nice pin back with a photograph of Colonel Josiah Pickett of the 25th Massachusetts Infantry on it.  The pin back is approximately 1 1/2 inches wide and is in good condition.  


From the "Springfield Republican," page 5, 15 January 1908:
Gen. Josiah Pickett Dead.
Was Colonel of 25th Massachusetts and Under Military Arrest for Most of His Life.
---
Gen. Josiah Pickett, one of the most prominent officers commanding a regiment during the civil war, colonel of the 25th Massachusetts regiment, and one of Worcester's most prominent citizens, died at 9 o'clock yesterday morning at his home in Worcester of a general breaking down of his constitution.
During the war Gen. Pickett was placed under military arrest and this was never removed. The adjutant whose duty it would have been to record the arrest was killed in the conflict, and because of the heroism displayed by Worcester's soldier the charges against him were entirely forgotten. He was always rather proud of this distinction and refused to allow any movement to formally release him from the arrest ordered by Gen. Stannard but never carried into effect.

The announcement of Gen. Pickett's death was received with sincere regret by a host of people extending far beyond the ranks of the old Soldiers.
The flags on the Worcester city hall and on the copmmon were lowered to half-mast because of his record as a public official, and the flag on the Grand Army hall was also half-masted.
Arrangements for the funeral have not been completed, but the hour is fixed.... Burial will be in Rural cemetery.

Josiah Pickett was born in Beverly, November 22, 1822, the son of Josiah and Mary (Cressey) Pickett, and was the sixth decendant of Nicholas Pickett, who landed in Marblehead in 1647. He was married in Lowell in December, 1847, to Miss Elizabeth Burnham, who lived until two years ago.
He went to Worcester in 1855, and since that time his history had been a part of the history of the city.

When there a short time he joined thw Worcester city guards, then commanded by Capt.(later Col.) George H. Ward, for whom the Worcester Grand Army post is named.

 

75 New York Infantry 1924 Reunion Badge

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A nice badge worn by a member of the 75th New York Infantry at their 1924 reunion held in Auburn, New York.  The hanger is a metal ring which holds a pinback.  On the pinback is an eagle, Liberty Bell, Revolutionary War soldiers, and the Declaration of Independence.  Attached to the hanger is a blue ribbon.  Written on the ribbon is "44th Annual Reunion 75th N.Y. Volunteers - June 27th, 1924 - Auburn, N.Y.".  The badge is approximately 6 7/8 inches long by 2 inches wide.

75th Infantry Regiment
Civil War
Auburn Regiment; Cayuga County Regiment

History

Mustered in: November 26, 1861
Mustered out: August 23, 1865

The following is taken from New York in the War of the Rebellion, 3rd ed. Frederick Phisterer. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company, 1912.
This regiment, Col. John A. Dodge, was organized at Auburn, received its numerical designation November 14, 1861; and was mustered in the service of the United States (nine companies), at Auburn, for three years, November 26, 1861. The men were recruited principally in the counties of Cayuga and Seneca. Company K joined the regiment June 24, 1862, having left the State June 13, 1862. In April, 1864, a new Company K was again organized to take the place of the one consolidated with the other companies April 10, 1864. The men entitled to be discharged at the expiration of the term of service were, November 19, 1864, ordered to Auburn, and there honorably discharged December 7, 1864; the regiment was continued in service, but consolidated, November 19, 1864, into a battalion of five companies, A, B, C, D and E; the men of Company H being transferred to Company A; those of I to Company B; of K to Company C; of G to Company D; and those of F to Company E. In April, 1865, the 31st Independent Company of Infantry joined the battalion as its Company F.
| The regiment (nine companies) left the State December 6, 1861; served at Santa Rosa Island and Fort Pickens, Fla., from December, 1861; at Pensacola, Fla., from May, 1862; at New Orleans, La., Department of the Gulf, from September, 1862; in Weitzel's Reserve Brigade, Department of the Gulf, from October, 1862; in 2d Brigade, 1st Division, 19th Corps, from January, 1863; in Reserve Brigade, 1st Division, 19th Corps, from August, 1863; in 3d Brigade, 1st Division, 19th Corps, from September, 1863; was mounted and joined the 3d Cavalry Brigade in October, 1863; on veteran furlough in January and February, 1864, the non-veterans, about 90 men, serving with Companies K and L, I4th Cavalry, and rejoining the regiment June 28, 1864; the veteran regiment left for Washington, D. C., 22d Corps, as infantry, April 2, 1864; for Department of the Gulf, May 20, 1864; served in the 1st Brigade, 2d Division, 19th Corps, from June 4, 1864; with the Army of the James, from 21st to 31st of July, 1864; in the Shenandoah valley from August, 1864; left for Savannah, Ga., January II, 1865; served in the 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 10th Corps, from February, 1865; in the 3d Brigade, 1st Division, Department of Georgia, from March, 1865; and it was honorably discharged and mustered out, under Col. Robert P. York, August 31, 1865, at Savannah, Ga.
During its service the regiment lost by death, killed in action, 3 officers, 50 enlisted men; of wounds received in action, 1 officer, 42 enlisted men; of disease and other causes, 109 enlisted men; total, 4 officers, 201 enlisted men; aggregate, 205; of whom 10 enlisted men died in the hands of the enemy; and it, or portions of it.

The following is taken from The Union army: a history of military affairs in the loyal states, 1861-65 -- records of the regiments in the Union army -- cyclopedia of battles -- memoirs of commanders and soldiers. Madison, WI: Federal Pub. Co., 1908. volume II.
Seventy-fifth Infantry.—Cols., John A. Dodge, Robert B. Mer-ritt, Robert P. York; Lieut.-Cols., Robert P. York, William M. Hosmer, Robert B. Merritt, Willoughby Babcock; Majs. Willoughby Babcock, Lewis E. Carpenter, Benjamin F. Thurber, William M. Hosmer, Charles H. Cox. The 75th, known as the Auburn regiment, was composed mainly of members from Cayuga and Seneca counties, and was mustered into the service of the United States at Auburn, for a three years' term, Nov. 26, 1861. It embarked for the south on Dec. 6; was stationed at Santa Rosa island and Fort Pickens, Fla., during its first winter in the service, and formed part of the garrison of Pensacola during the summer of 1862. While here Co. K joined the regiment, which was ordered to New Orleans in September. It was assigned to Weitzel's reserve brigade, which had a brisk fight at Georgia landing. Upon the organization of the 19th corps in Jan., 1863, the regiment became a part of the 2nd brigade, 1st division and moved to Bayou Teche, La. It lost 17 in an engagement at Fort Bisland in April, and in the assaults on Port Hudson, May 27 and June 14 it lost 107 in killed, wounded and miss-.ing, the 1st division bearing the brunt of the fight. After the surrender of Port Hudson, July 9, the troops performed garrison duty. From August to September, the regiment served with the reserve brigade of the 1st division; in September it was assigned to the 3d brigade of the same division; in October it was mounted and attached to the 3d cavalry brigade, and during the winter a sufficiently large number of the men reenlisted to secure the continuance of the 75th as a veteran regiment. While the reenlisted men were on furlough, the remainder of the regiment served with the 14th N. Y. cavalry and rejoined the regiment June 28, 1864. At Sabine Pass, the regiment lost 85 killed, wounded or missing and during Nov., 1863, it was stationed near New Iberia and Camp Lewis, La. In March, 1864, the command entered upon the Red River campaign and in July it was ordered to New Orleans. After the regiment was reunited, in June, 1864, it served until the middle of July with the 1st brigade, 2nd division, 19th corps, and then embarked for Virginia, where it became a part of the Army of the James and joined in the pursuit of Gen. Early in the Shenandoah Valley. It was engaged at Halltown, the Opequan, where the loss was 73 killed, wounded and missing, at Fisher's hill and Cedar creek, where it also suffered severely. The original members not reenlisted were mustered out at Auburn, N. Y., Dec. 6, 1864, and the veterans and recruits consolidated into a battalion of five companies, which was ordered early in Jan., 1865, to Savannah, Ga., and assigned to the 1st brigade, 1st division, 10th corps. The regiment served at Savannah until August, and in April, received the veterans and recruits of the 31st independent company N. Y. infantry. It was mustered out at Savannah, Aug. 3, 1865, having lost 106 by death from wounds, and 109 from other causes.


75 New York Infantry 1926 Reunion Badge

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A super badge worn by a member of the 75th New York Infantry at their 1926 reunion held at Auburn, New York.  The badge has a "T bar" attached to a red, white, and blue ribbon.  Written on the ribbon is gold colored ink is "46th Annual Reunion 75th N.Y. Volunteers - June 29th 1926 - Auburn, N.Y. - Our Liberty Bell".  A celluloid disk is attached to the ribbon.  The Liberty bell is on the disk.  The badge was made by the Bastian Bros. Company, Rochester, New York.  

75th Infantry Regiment
Civil War
Auburn Regiment; Cayuga County Regiment

History

Mustered in: November 26, 1861
Mustered out: August 23, 1865

The following is taken from New York in the War of the Rebellion, 3rd ed. Frederick Phisterer. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company, 1912.
This regiment, Col. John A. Dodge, was organized at Auburn, received its numerical designation November 14, 1861; and was mustered in the service of the United States (nine companies), at Auburn, for three years, November 26, 1861. The men were recruited principally in the counties of Cayuga and Seneca. Company K joined the regiment June 24, 1862, having left the State June 13, 1862. In April, 1864, a new Company K was again organized to take the place of the one consolidated with the other companies April 10, 1864. The men entitled to be discharged at the expiration of the term of service were, November 19, 1864, ordered to Auburn, and there honorably discharged December 7, 1864; the regiment was continued in service, but consolidated, November 19, 1864, into a battalion of five companies, A, B, C, D and E; the men of Company H being transferred to Company A; those of I to Company B; of K to Company C; of G to Company D; and those of F to Company E. In April, 1865, the 31st Independent Company of Infantry joined the battalion as its Company F.
| The regiment (nine companies) left the State December 6, 1861; served at Santa Rosa Island and Fort Pickens, Fla., from December, 1861; at Pensacola, Fla., from May, 1862; at New Orleans, La., Department of the Gulf, from September, 1862; in Weitzel's Reserve Brigade, Department of the Gulf, from October, 1862; in 2d Brigade, 1st Division, 19th Corps, from January, 1863; in Reserve Brigade, 1st Division, 19th Corps, from August, 1863; in 3d Brigade, 1st Division, 19th Corps, from September, 1863; was mounted and joined the 3d Cavalry Brigade in October, 1863; on veteran furlough in January and February, 1864, the non-veterans, about 90 men, serving with Companies K and L, I4th Cavalry, and rejoining the regiment June 28, 1864; the veteran regiment left for Washington, D. C., 22d Corps, as infantry, April 2, 1864; for Department of the Gulf, May 20, 1864; served in the 1st Brigade, 2d Division, 19th Corps, from June 4, 1864; with the Army of the James, from 21st to 31st of July, 1864; in the Shenandoah valley from August, 1864; left for Savannah, Ga., January II, 1865; served in the 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 10th Corps, from February, 1865; in the 3d Brigade, 1st Division, Department of Georgia, from March, 1865; and it was honorably discharged and mustered out, under Col. Robert P. York, August 31, 1865, at Savannah, Ga.
During its service the regiment lost by death, killed in action, 3 officers, 50 enlisted men; of wounds received in action, 1 officer, 42 enlisted men; of disease and other causes, 109 enlisted men; total, 4 officers, 201 enlisted men; aggregate, 205; of whom 10 enlisted men died in the hands of the enemy; and it, or portions of it.

The following is taken from The Union army: a history of military affairs in the loyal states, 1861-65 -- records of the regiments in the Union army -- cyclopedia of battles -- memoirs of commanders and soldiers. Madison, WI: Federal Pub. Co., 1908. volume II.
Seventy-fifth Infantry.—Cols., John A. Dodge, Robert B. Mer-ritt, Robert P. York; Lieut.-Cols., Robert P. York, William M. Hosmer, Robert B. Merritt, Willoughby Babcock; Majs. Willoughby Babcock, Lewis E. Carpenter, Benjamin F. Thurber, William M. Hosmer, Charles H. Cox. The 75th, known as the Auburn regiment, was composed mainly of members from Cayuga and Seneca counties, and was mustered into the service of the United States at Auburn, for a three years' term, Nov. 26, 1861. It embarked for the south on Dec. 6; was stationed at Santa Rosa island and Fort Pickens, Fla., during its first winter in the service, and formed part of the garrison of Pensacola during the summer of 1862. While here Co. K joined the regiment, which was ordered to New Orleans in September. It was assigned to Weitzel's reserve brigade, which had a brisk fight at Georgia landing. Upon the organization of the 19th corps in Jan., 1863, the regiment became a part of the 2nd brigade, 1st division and moved to Bayou Teche, La. It lost 17 in an engagement at Fort Bisland in April, and in the assaults on Port Hudson, May 27 and June 14 it lost 107 in killed, wounded and miss-.ing, the 1st division bearing the brunt of the fight. After the surrender of Port Hudson, July 9, the troops performed garrison duty. From August to September, the regiment served with the reserve brigade of the 1st division; in September it was assigned to the 3d brigade of the same division; in October it was mounted and attached to the 3d cavalry brigade, and during the winter a sufficiently large number of the men reenlisted to secure the continuance of the 75th as a veteran regiment. While the reenlisted men were on furlough, the remainder of the regiment served with the 14th N. Y. cavalry and rejoined the regiment June 28, 1864. At Sabine Pass, the regiment lost 85 killed, wounded or missing and during Nov., 1863, it was stationed near New Iberia and Camp Lewis, La. In March, 1864, the command entered upon the Red River campaign and in July it was ordered to New Orleans. After the regiment was reunited, in June, 1864, it served until the middle of July with the 1st brigade, 2nd division, 19th corps, and then embarked for Virginia, where it became a part of the Army of the James and joined in the pursuit of Gen. Early in the Shenandoah Valley. It was engaged at Halltown, the Opequan, where the loss was 73 killed, wounded and missing, at Fisher's hill and Cedar creek, where it also suffered severely. The original members not reenlisted were mustered out at Auburn, N. Y., Dec. 6, 1864, and the veterans and recruits consolidated into a battalion of five companies, which was ordered early in Jan., 1865, to Savannah, Ga., and assigned to the 1st brigade, 1st division, 10th corps. The regiment served at Savannah until August, and in April, received the veterans and recruits of the 31st independent company N. Y. infantry. It was mustered out at Savannah, Aug. 3, 1865, having lost 106 by death from wounds, and 109 from other causes.


94 New York Infantry 1901 Reunion Pinback

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A neat pinback worn by veterans of the 94th new York Infantry at their 1901 reunion held in Watertown, New York.  The pinback is a white color with "94th N.Y. V. Vols. Reunion - Watertown, N.Y. - March 14, 1901".  The pinback was made by the Whitehead & Hoag Company, Newark, New Jersey.  The pinback is approximately 7/8 inches wide.

94th Infantry Regiment
Civil War
Bell Rifles; Bell Jefferson Rifles; Sackett's Harbor Regiment

History

Mustered in: March 10, 1862
Mustered out: July 18, 1865

The following is taken from New York in the War of the Rebellion, 3rd ed. Frederick Phisterer. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company, 1912.
W. B. Camp received authority in October, 1861, as Colonel, to recruit a regiment of infantry. He was succeeded, November 4, 1861, by Gen. John J. Viele. This regiment was organized at Sackett's Harbor January 6, 1862, and there mustered in the service of the United States for three years, March 10, 1862, with Henry K. Viele as Colonel. March17, 1863, the regiment was consolidated into five companies, A, B, C, D and E, and received the 105th Infantry as its Companies F, G, H, I and K. August 10, 1864, about 100 men of the 97th Infantry were transferred to it. At the expiration of its term of enlistment the men entitled thereto were discharged, and the regiment retained in service.
The companies were recruited in Jefferson county, and the regiment left the State March 18, 1862; it served in General Wadsworth's command, Military District of Washington, from March, 1862; in 1st Brigade, 2d Division, Department of Rappahannock, from May, 1862; in same brigade and division, 3d Corps, Army of Virginia, from June 26, 1862; in same brigade and division, 1st Corps, Army of the Potomac, from September 12, 1862; in 1st Brigade, same division and corps, from December, 1862; as Provost Guard, Army of the Potomac, from May, 1863; in 1st Brigade, 2d Division, 1st Corps, Army of the Potomac, again from June, 1863; in the District of Annapolis, Md., 8th Corps, from December, 1863; in the 3d Brigade, 4th Division, 5th Corps, Army of the Potomac, from May 26, 1864; in the 1st Brigade, 2d Division, 5th Corps, from May 30, 1864; in the 1st Brigade, 3d Division, 5th Corps, from June, 1864; in the 2d Brigade, 3d Division, 5th Corps, from June 11, 1864; in the 3d Brigade, same division and corps, from November, 1864; and it was honorably discharged and mustered out, commanded by Col. Adrian R. Root, July 18, 1865, near Washington, D. C.
During its service the regiment lost by death, killed in action, 3 officers, 72 enlisted men; of wounds received in action, 1 officer, 39 enlisted men; of disease and other causes, I officer, 138 enlisted men; total, 5 officers, 249 enlisted men; aggregate, 254; of whom 37 enlisted men died in the hands of the enemy.

The following is taken from The Union army: a history of military affairs in the loyal states, 1861-65 -- records of the regiments in the Union army -- cyclopedia of battles -- memoirs of commanders and soldiers. Madison, WI: Federal Pub. Co., 1908. volume II.
Ninety-fourth Infantry.—Cols., Henry K. Viele, Adrian R. Root; Lieut.-Cols., Colvin Littlefield, John A. Kress, Samuel Moffatt; Majs., William R. Hanford, John A. Kress, D. C. Tomlinson, Sam-uel S. Moffatt, John A. McMahon, Henry P. Fish, Byron Parsons. The 94th, the "Bell Rifles." recruited in Jefferson county, was mustered into the U. S. service at Sacket's Harbor, March 10, 1862, and left the state for Washington on the 18th. It served in the defenses of Washington under Gen. Wadsworth, was assigned to the 1st brigade, 2nd division, Department of the Rappahannock in May, and to the 3d corps, Army of Virginia, June 26, with which it participated in Gen. Pope's Virginia campaign, losing 147 in killed, wounded and missing. On Sept. 12, with the same brigade, and division, the regiment was attached to the 1st corps, was active at South mountain and Antietam, and in December at Fredericksburg. The winter was passed in camp near Falmouth and in March, 1863; the regiment was consolidated into a battalion of five companies, to which were added five companies of the l05th N. Y. infantry. The regiment served for a month as provost guard and in June, 1863, returned to the 1st corps with its old brigade and division, and suffered the heaviest loss of its service at Gettysburg-245 killed, wounded or missing. It shared in the Mine Run fiasco and in December was ordered to Annapolis, where it became a part of the 8th corps. During the winter a large number of its members reenlisted and the regiment continued in service as a veteran organization. In the Wilderness campaign it served with the 5th corps, being engaged at Cold Harbor, Totopotomy and White Oak swamp. It moved with the Army of the Potomac to Petersburg and was closely engaged at the Weldon railroad, losing 178 killed, wounded or missing. On Aug. 10, 1864, the regiment was joined by the veterans and recruits of the 97th N. Y. infantry and remained on duty before Petersburg until the end of the siege, after which it was active at Five Forks, and was present at Lee's surrender. The 94th was mustered out at Washington, July 18; 1865, having lost 116 by death from wounds and 138 from other causes, of whom 37 died in imprisonment. Maj. Fish was killed in action at Five Forks.


147 New York Volunteers Celluloid Badge

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A nice celluloid pin back worn by veterans of the 147th New York Volunteer Infantry at reunions and parades.  The celluloid is approximately 1 1/4 inches wide.  The pin back is red in color with "147th N.Y. Vols." written on the it.  The pin back was made by the Whitehead & Hoag Company of newark, New Jersey.


 147th Infantry Regiment

Civil War
Oswego Regiment

History

Mustered in: September 22, 1862
Mustered out: June 7, 1865

The following is taken from New York in the War of the Rebellion, 3rd ed. Frederick Phisterer. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company, 1912.
Colonel Andrew S. Warner received authority, August 25, 1862, to recruit a regiment in the then 21st Senatorial District of the State; it was organized at Oswego, and there mustered in the service of the United States for three years September 22 and 23, 1862. January 25, 1865, it received by transfer the veterans and recruits of the 76th Infantry not mustered out with their regiment. June 5, 1865, the men not to be mustered out with the regiment were transferred to the 91st Infantry.
The companies were recruited principally: A, B and I at Oswego; C at Richland, Albion and Williamstown; D at Fulton, Granby and Volney; E at Sandy Creek, Redfield, Boyleston and Orwell; F at Mexico, Palermo and New Haven; G at Oswego and Scriba; H at Constantia, Parish, Amboy and West Monroe, and K at Oswego, Scriba and Fulton.
The regiment left the State September 25, 1862; it served in the 2d Brigade, defenses of Washington, north of the Potomac, from September, 1862; in the Provisional Brigade, Provost Guard, Army of the Potomac, from December, 1862; in the 3d Brigade, 1st Division, 1st Corps, from January, 1863; in the 2d Brigade, 1st Division, 1st Corps, from March, 1863; in the 2d Brigade, 4th Division, 5th Corps, from March, 1864; in the 3d Brigade, 2d Division, 5th Corps, from August, 1864; in the 3d Brigade, 3d Division, 5th Corps, from September, 1864; and, under Col. Francis C. Miller, it was honorably discharged and mustered out June 7, 1865, near Washington, D. C.
During its service the regiment lost by death, killed in action, 5 officers, 107 enlisted men; of wounds received in action, 4 officers, 52 enlisted men; of disease and other causes, 2 officers, 177 enlisted men; total, 11 officers, 336 enlisted men; aggregate, 347; of whom 71 enlisted men died in the hands of the enemy.

The following is taken from The Union army: a history of military affairs in the loyal states, 1861-65 -- records of the regiments in the Union army -- cyclopedia of battles -- memoirs of commanders and soldiers. Madison, WI: Federal Pub. Co., 1908. volume II.
One Hundred and Forty-seventh infantry.—Cols., Andrew S. Warner, John G. Butler, Francis C. Miller; Lieut.-Cols., John G. Butler, Francis C. Miller, George Harney, James Coey; Majs., Francis C. Miller, George Harney, Dudley Farling, Alex. R. Penfield, James Coey. This was an Oswego county regiment, organized at Oswego and there mustered into the U. S. service on Sept. 23, 1862. It received by transfer on Jan. 25, 1865, the remnant of the 76th N. Y. The regiment left the state on Sept. 25, 1862, and after serving for a time in the defenses of Washington, north of the Potomac and in the provisional brigade, provost guard, Army of the Potomac, it was placed in the 1st division, 1st corps. It was under fire for the first time at Fitzhugh's crossing below Fredericksburg, one of the preliminary movements of the Chancellorsville campaign, losing a few men killed and wounded. It was in reserve at Chancellorsville and sustained no losses. In the 2nd (Cutler's) brigade, 1st (Wadsworth's) division 1st corps, and commanded by Lieut.-Col. Miller, it marched on the field of Gettysburg. "The brigade— Cutler's—was the first infantry to arrive on that field and to it fell the honor of opening that famous battle, the first volley coming from the rifles of the 56th Pa. When Cutler's troops were forced back, the order to retire failed to reach the 147th, as Col. Miller fell wounded and senseless just as he received it, and so the gallant band, under Maj. Harney, continued to hold its ground. A temporary success near by enabled the regiment to retire in good order; but not all, for of the 380 who entered that fight, 76 were killed or mortally wounded, 146 were wounded, and 79 were missing; total, 301." (Fox's, Regimental Losses in the Civil War.) The regiment took part in the Mine Run campaign—the last campaign of the 1st corps—sustaining a few casualties, and then went into winter quarters at Brandy Station. In March, 1864, when the 1st corps was broken up, it was assigned to the 3d brigade, 4th (Wadsworth's) division, 5th (Warren's) corps, and was actively engaged in all the battles of the corps during Grant's bloody campaign of 1864-65. While in the 5th corps it took part in the battle of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna river, Totopotomy, Cold Harbor, first assault on Petersburg, siege of Petersburg, Weldon railroad, Poplar Spring Church, Boydton road, Hatcher's run, White Oak ridge, Five Forks and Appomattox. The total casualties of the regiment from the opening of the campaign in May, 1864, until Lee's surrender, amounted to 477 killed, wounded and missing. It was mustered out near Washington, D. C, June 7, 1865, under. Col. Miller. The total enrollment of the regiment during service was 2,102, of whom 581 were killed or wounded; 9 officers and 159 men were killed or mortally wounded; 2 officers and 177 men died of disease and other causes; total deaths, 11 officers and 336 men.


70 Ohio Volunteer Infantry Shield/Ladder Badge

SOLD!!!
Offered is a wonderful badge worn by a veteran of Company A, 70th Ohio Volunteer Infantry.  The badge has two ladders and a shield as the bottom drop.  Written on the top two ladders is “CO.A – 70” OHIO”.   Written on the shield drop is “VOL. INF. – SHILOH – Apr. 6 & 7  1862”.  The shield also has a pair of crossed muskets on it. 

From Dyer's Compendium

70th Regiment Infantry. Organized at West Union, Ohio, October 14, 1861. Moved to Ripley, Ohio, December 25, thence to Paducah, Ky., February 17, 1862. Attached to District of Paducah, Ky., to March, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 5th Division, Army of the Tennessee, to July, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 5th Division, District of Memphis, Tenn., to November. 1862. 3rd Brigade, 5th Division, District of Memphis, Right Wing 13th Army Corps (Old), Dept. of the Tennessee, November, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, District of Memphis, 13th Army Corps, to December, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 17th Army Corps, to January, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 16th Army Corps, to March, 1863. 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, 16th Army Corps, to July, 1863. 3rd Brigade, 4th Division, 15th Army Corps, to August, 1864. 1st Brigade, 4th Division, 15th Army Corps, to September, 1864. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 15th Army Corps, to July, 1865. Dept. of Arkansas to August, 1865.
SERVICE.--Moved from Paducah, Ky., to Savannah, Tenn., March 6-10, 1862. Expedition to Yellow Creek and occupation of Pittsburg Landing, Tenn., March 14-17. Crump's Landing April 4. Battle of Shiloh, Tenn., April 6-7. Advance on and siege of Corinth, Miss., April 29-May 30. Russell House, near Corinth, May 17. Occupation of Corinth May 30. March to Memphis, Tenn., via LaGrange, Grand Junction and Holly Springs June 1-July 21. Duty at Memphis till November. Grant's Central Mississippi Campaign, operations on the Mississippi Central Railroad, November, 1862, to January, 1863. Moved to LaGrange, Tenn., and duty there till March 7, and at Moscow till June 9. Ordered to Vicksburg, Miss., June 9. Siege of Vicksburg June 14-July 4. Advance on Jackson, Miss., July 4-10. Bolton's Ferry, Black River, July 4-6. Siege of Jackson July 10-17. Camp at Big Black till September 26. Moved to Memphis, Tenn., thence march to Chattanooga, Tenn., September 26-November 20. Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign November 23-27. Tunnel Hill November 23-25. Mission Ridge November 25. March to relief of Knoxville, Tenn., November 28-December 28. Regiment reenlisted January 1, 1864. Veterans on furlough February. Duty at Scottsboro, Ala., till May. Atlanta (Ga.) Campaign May 1-September 8. Demonstrations on Resaca May 8-13. Near Resaca May 13. Battle of Resaca May 14-15. Advance on Dallas May 18-25. Operations on line of Pumpkin Vine Creek and battles about Dallas, New Hope Church and Allatoona Hills May 25-June 5. Operations about Marietta and against Kenesaw Mountain June 10-July 2. Brush Mountain June 15. Assault on Kenesaw June 27. Nickajack Creek July 2-5. Ruff's Mills July 3-4. Chattahoochie River July 5-17. Battle of Atlanta July 22. Siege of Atlanta July 22-August 25. Ezra Chapel July 28 (Hood's second sortie). Flank movement on Jonesboro August 25-30. Battle of Jonesboro August 31-September 1. Lovejoy Station September 2-6. Operations against Hood in North Georgia and North Alabama September 29-November 3. Reconnoissance from Rome on Cave Springs Road and skirmishes October 12-13. March to the sea November 15-December 10. Statesboro December 4. Near Bryan Court House December 8. Siege of Savannah December 10-21. Fort McAllister December 13. Campaign of the Carolinas January to April, 1865. Columbia, S.C., February 16-17. Battle of Bentonville, N. C., March 20-21. Occupation of Goldsboro March 24. Advance on Raleigh April 10-14. Occupation of Raleigh April 14. Bennett's House April 26. Surrender of Johnston and his army. March to Washington, D.C., via Richmond, Va., April 29-May 30. Grand Review May 24. Moved to Louisville, Ky., June, thence to Little Rock, Ark., and duty there till August. Mustered out August 14, 1865. Regiment lost during service 5 Officers and 70 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Officers and 188 Enlisted men by disease. Total 265.


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