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Badges
94 New York Infantry 1901 Reunion Pinback

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A neat pinback worn by veterans of the 94th new York Infantry at their 1901 reunion held in Watertown, New York.  The pinback is a white color with "94th N.Y. V. Vols. Reunion - Watertown, N.Y. - March 14, 1901".  The pinback was made by the Whitehead & Hoag Company, Newark, New Jersey.  The pinback is approximately 7/8 inches wide.

94th Infantry Regiment
Civil War
Bell Rifles; Bell Jefferson Rifles; Sackett's Harbor Regiment

History

Mustered in: March 10, 1862
Mustered out: July 18, 1865

The following is taken from New York in the War of the Rebellion, 3rd ed. Frederick Phisterer. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company, 1912.
W. B. Camp received authority in October, 1861, as Colonel, to recruit a regiment of infantry. He was succeeded, November 4, 1861, by Gen. John J. Viele. This regiment was organized at Sackett's Harbor January 6, 1862, and there mustered in the service of the United States for three years, March 10, 1862, with Henry K. Viele as Colonel. March17, 1863, the regiment was consolidated into five companies, A, B, C, D and E, and received the 105th Infantry as its Companies F, G, H, I and K. August 10, 1864, about 100 men of the 97th Infantry were transferred to it. At the expiration of its term of enlistment the men entitled thereto were discharged, and the regiment retained in service.
The companies were recruited in Jefferson county, and the regiment left the State March 18, 1862; it served in General Wadsworth's command, Military District of Washington, from March, 1862; in 1st Brigade, 2d Division, Department of Rappahannock, from May, 1862; in same brigade and division, 3d Corps, Army of Virginia, from June 26, 1862; in same brigade and division, 1st Corps, Army of the Potomac, from September 12, 1862; in 1st Brigade, same division and corps, from December, 1862; as Provost Guard, Army of the Potomac, from May, 1863; in 1st Brigade, 2d Division, 1st Corps, Army of the Potomac, again from June, 1863; in the District of Annapolis, Md., 8th Corps, from December, 1863; in the 3d Brigade, 4th Division, 5th Corps, Army of the Potomac, from May 26, 1864; in the 1st Brigade, 2d Division, 5th Corps, from May 30, 1864; in the 1st Brigade, 3d Division, 5th Corps, from June, 1864; in the 2d Brigade, 3d Division, 5th Corps, from June 11, 1864; in the 3d Brigade, same division and corps, from November, 1864; and it was honorably discharged and mustered out, commanded by Col. Adrian R. Root, July 18, 1865, near Washington, D. C.
During its service the regiment lost by death, killed in action, 3 officers, 72 enlisted men; of wounds received in action, 1 officer, 39 enlisted men; of disease and other causes, I officer, 138 enlisted men; total, 5 officers, 249 enlisted men; aggregate, 254; of whom 37 enlisted men died in the hands of the enemy.

The following is taken from The Union army: a history of military affairs in the loyal states, 1861-65 -- records of the regiments in the Union army -- cyclopedia of battles -- memoirs of commanders and soldiers. Madison, WI: Federal Pub. Co., 1908. volume II.
Ninety-fourth Infantry.—Cols., Henry K. Viele, Adrian R. Root; Lieut.-Cols., Colvin Littlefield, John A. Kress, Samuel Moffatt; Majs., William R. Hanford, John A. Kress, D. C. Tomlinson, Sam-uel S. Moffatt, John A. McMahon, Henry P. Fish, Byron Parsons. The 94th, the "Bell Rifles." recruited in Jefferson county, was mustered into the U. S. service at Sacket's Harbor, March 10, 1862, and left the state for Washington on the 18th. It served in the defenses of Washington under Gen. Wadsworth, was assigned to the 1st brigade, 2nd division, Department of the Rappahannock in May, and to the 3d corps, Army of Virginia, June 26, with which it participated in Gen. Pope's Virginia campaign, losing 147 in killed, wounded and missing. On Sept. 12, with the same brigade, and division, the regiment was attached to the 1st corps, was active at South mountain and Antietam, and in December at Fredericksburg. The winter was passed in camp near Falmouth and in March, 1863; the regiment was consolidated into a battalion of five companies, to which were added five companies of the l05th N. Y. infantry. The regiment served for a month as provost guard and in June, 1863, returned to the 1st corps with its old brigade and division, and suffered the heaviest loss of its service at Gettysburg-245 killed, wounded or missing. It shared in the Mine Run fiasco and in December was ordered to Annapolis, where it became a part of the 8th corps. During the winter a large number of its members reenlisted and the regiment continued in service as a veteran organization. In the Wilderness campaign it served with the 5th corps, being engaged at Cold Harbor, Totopotomy and White Oak swamp. It moved with the Army of the Potomac to Petersburg and was closely engaged at the Weldon railroad, losing 178 killed, wounded or missing. On Aug. 10, 1864, the regiment was joined by the veterans and recruits of the 97th N. Y. infantry and remained on duty before Petersburg until the end of the siege, after which it was active at Five Forks, and was present at Lee's surrender. The 94th was mustered out at Washington, July 18; 1865, having lost 116 by death from wounds and 138 from other causes, of whom 37 died in imprisonment. Maj. Fish was killed in action at Five Forks.


147 New York Volunteers Celluloid Badge

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A nice celluloid pin back worn by veterans of the 147th New York Volunteer Infantry at reunions and parades.  The celluloid is approximately 1 1/4 inches wide.  The pin back is red in color with "147th N.Y. Vols." written on the it.  The pin back was made by the Whitehead & Hoag Company of newark, New Jersey.


 147th Infantry Regiment

Civil War
Oswego Regiment

History

Mustered in: September 22, 1862
Mustered out: June 7, 1865

The following is taken from New York in the War of the Rebellion, 3rd ed. Frederick Phisterer. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company, 1912.
Colonel Andrew S. Warner received authority, August 25, 1862, to recruit a regiment in the then 21st Senatorial District of the State; it was organized at Oswego, and there mustered in the service of the United States for three years September 22 and 23, 1862. January 25, 1865, it received by transfer the veterans and recruits of the 76th Infantry not mustered out with their regiment. June 5, 1865, the men not to be mustered out with the regiment were transferred to the 91st Infantry.
The companies were recruited principally: A, B and I at Oswego; C at Richland, Albion and Williamstown; D at Fulton, Granby and Volney; E at Sandy Creek, Redfield, Boyleston and Orwell; F at Mexico, Palermo and New Haven; G at Oswego and Scriba; H at Constantia, Parish, Amboy and West Monroe, and K at Oswego, Scriba and Fulton.
The regiment left the State September 25, 1862; it served in the 2d Brigade, defenses of Washington, north of the Potomac, from September, 1862; in the Provisional Brigade, Provost Guard, Army of the Potomac, from December, 1862; in the 3d Brigade, 1st Division, 1st Corps, from January, 1863; in the 2d Brigade, 1st Division, 1st Corps, from March, 1863; in the 2d Brigade, 4th Division, 5th Corps, from March, 1864; in the 3d Brigade, 2d Division, 5th Corps, from August, 1864; in the 3d Brigade, 3d Division, 5th Corps, from September, 1864; and, under Col. Francis C. Miller, it was honorably discharged and mustered out June 7, 1865, near Washington, D. C.
During its service the regiment lost by death, killed in action, 5 officers, 107 enlisted men; of wounds received in action, 4 officers, 52 enlisted men; of disease and other causes, 2 officers, 177 enlisted men; total, 11 officers, 336 enlisted men; aggregate, 347; of whom 71 enlisted men died in the hands of the enemy.

The following is taken from The Union army: a history of military affairs in the loyal states, 1861-65 -- records of the regiments in the Union army -- cyclopedia of battles -- memoirs of commanders and soldiers. Madison, WI: Federal Pub. Co., 1908. volume II.
One Hundred and Forty-seventh infantry.—Cols., Andrew S. Warner, John G. Butler, Francis C. Miller; Lieut.-Cols., John G. Butler, Francis C. Miller, George Harney, James Coey; Majs., Francis C. Miller, George Harney, Dudley Farling, Alex. R. Penfield, James Coey. This was an Oswego county regiment, organized at Oswego and there mustered into the U. S. service on Sept. 23, 1862. It received by transfer on Jan. 25, 1865, the remnant of the 76th N. Y. The regiment left the state on Sept. 25, 1862, and after serving for a time in the defenses of Washington, north of the Potomac and in the provisional brigade, provost guard, Army of the Potomac, it was placed in the 1st division, 1st corps. It was under fire for the first time at Fitzhugh's crossing below Fredericksburg, one of the preliminary movements of the Chancellorsville campaign, losing a few men killed and wounded. It was in reserve at Chancellorsville and sustained no losses. In the 2nd (Cutler's) brigade, 1st (Wadsworth's) division 1st corps, and commanded by Lieut.-Col. Miller, it marched on the field of Gettysburg. "The brigade— Cutler's—was the first infantry to arrive on that field and to it fell the honor of opening that famous battle, the first volley coming from the rifles of the 56th Pa. When Cutler's troops were forced back, the order to retire failed to reach the 147th, as Col. Miller fell wounded and senseless just as he received it, and so the gallant band, under Maj. Harney, continued to hold its ground. A temporary success near by enabled the regiment to retire in good order; but not all, for of the 380 who entered that fight, 76 were killed or mortally wounded, 146 were wounded, and 79 were missing; total, 301." (Fox's, Regimental Losses in the Civil War.) The regiment took part in the Mine Run campaign—the last campaign of the 1st corps—sustaining a few casualties, and then went into winter quarters at Brandy Station. In March, 1864, when the 1st corps was broken up, it was assigned to the 3d brigade, 4th (Wadsworth's) division, 5th (Warren's) corps, and was actively engaged in all the battles of the corps during Grant's bloody campaign of 1864-65. While in the 5th corps it took part in the battle of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna river, Totopotomy, Cold Harbor, first assault on Petersburg, siege of Petersburg, Weldon railroad, Poplar Spring Church, Boydton road, Hatcher's run, White Oak ridge, Five Forks and Appomattox. The total casualties of the regiment from the opening of the campaign in May, 1864, until Lee's surrender, amounted to 477 killed, wounded and missing. It was mustered out near Washington, D. C, June 7, 1865, under. Col. Miller. The total enrollment of the regiment during service was 2,102, of whom 581 were killed or wounded; 9 officers and 159 men were killed or mortally wounded; 2 officers and 177 men died of disease and other causes; total deaths, 11 officers and 336 men.


70 Ohio Volunteer Infantry Shield/Ladder Badge

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Offered is a wonderful badge worn by a veteran of Company A, 70th Ohio Volunteer Infantry.  The badge has two ladders and a shield as the bottom drop.  Written on the top two ladders is “CO.A – 70” OHIO”.   Written on the shield drop is “VOL. INF. – SHILOH – Apr. 6 & 7  1862”.  The shield also has a pair of crossed muskets on it. 

From Dyer's Compendium

70th Regiment Infantry. Organized at West Union, Ohio, October 14, 1861. Moved to Ripley, Ohio, December 25, thence to Paducah, Ky., February 17, 1862. Attached to District of Paducah, Ky., to March, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 5th Division, Army of the Tennessee, to July, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 5th Division, District of Memphis, Tenn., to November. 1862. 3rd Brigade, 5th Division, District of Memphis, Right Wing 13th Army Corps (Old), Dept. of the Tennessee, November, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, District of Memphis, 13th Army Corps, to December, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 17th Army Corps, to January, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 16th Army Corps, to March, 1863. 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, 16th Army Corps, to July, 1863. 3rd Brigade, 4th Division, 15th Army Corps, to August, 1864. 1st Brigade, 4th Division, 15th Army Corps, to September, 1864. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 15th Army Corps, to July, 1865. Dept. of Arkansas to August, 1865.
SERVICE.--Moved from Paducah, Ky., to Savannah, Tenn., March 6-10, 1862. Expedition to Yellow Creek and occupation of Pittsburg Landing, Tenn., March 14-17. Crump's Landing April 4. Battle of Shiloh, Tenn., April 6-7. Advance on and siege of Corinth, Miss., April 29-May 30. Russell House, near Corinth, May 17. Occupation of Corinth May 30. March to Memphis, Tenn., via LaGrange, Grand Junction and Holly Springs June 1-July 21. Duty at Memphis till November. Grant's Central Mississippi Campaign, operations on the Mississippi Central Railroad, November, 1862, to January, 1863. Moved to LaGrange, Tenn., and duty there till March 7, and at Moscow till June 9. Ordered to Vicksburg, Miss., June 9. Siege of Vicksburg June 14-July 4. Advance on Jackson, Miss., July 4-10. Bolton's Ferry, Black River, July 4-6. Siege of Jackson July 10-17. Camp at Big Black till September 26. Moved to Memphis, Tenn., thence march to Chattanooga, Tenn., September 26-November 20. Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign November 23-27. Tunnel Hill November 23-25. Mission Ridge November 25. March to relief of Knoxville, Tenn., November 28-December 28. Regiment reenlisted January 1, 1864. Veterans on furlough February. Duty at Scottsboro, Ala., till May. Atlanta (Ga.) Campaign May 1-September 8. Demonstrations on Resaca May 8-13. Near Resaca May 13. Battle of Resaca May 14-15. Advance on Dallas May 18-25. Operations on line of Pumpkin Vine Creek and battles about Dallas, New Hope Church and Allatoona Hills May 25-June 5. Operations about Marietta and against Kenesaw Mountain June 10-July 2. Brush Mountain June 15. Assault on Kenesaw June 27. Nickajack Creek July 2-5. Ruff's Mills July 3-4. Chattahoochie River July 5-17. Battle of Atlanta July 22. Siege of Atlanta July 22-August 25. Ezra Chapel July 28 (Hood's second sortie). Flank movement on Jonesboro August 25-30. Battle of Jonesboro August 31-September 1. Lovejoy Station September 2-6. Operations against Hood in North Georgia and North Alabama September 29-November 3. Reconnoissance from Rome on Cave Springs Road and skirmishes October 12-13. March to the sea November 15-December 10. Statesboro December 4. Near Bryan Court House December 8. Siege of Savannah December 10-21. Fort McAllister December 13. Campaign of the Carolinas January to April, 1865. Columbia, S.C., February 16-17. Battle of Bentonville, N. C., March 20-21. Occupation of Goldsboro March 24. Advance on Raleigh April 10-14. Occupation of Raleigh April 14. Bennett's House April 26. Surrender of Johnston and his army. March to Washington, D.C., via Richmond, Va., April 29-May 30. Grand Review May 24. Moved to Louisville, Ky., June, thence to Little Rock, Ark., and duty there till August. Mustered out August 14, 1865. Regiment lost during service 5 Officers and 70 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Officers and 188 Enlisted men by disease. Total 265.


3 Iowa Cavalry Ladder Badge

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Offered is a nice ladder badge worn by a member of Company D, 3rd Iowa Volunteer Cavalry.  The badge has 5 pieces.  There are four ladders and a tassel.  Written on the 4 ladder bars is “Co. D, 3, IOWA, Vol. Cav.”.  The tassel is a metal tassel and has some gold color left on it. A yellow ribbon is attached to the back of the badge.

Iowa

3rd REGIMENT CAVALRY

 

Organized at Keokuk August 30 to September 14, 1861. Moved to Benton Barracks, Mo., November 4-6, and duty there till February 4, 1862. (Cos. "E," "F" "G" and "H" detached to Jefferson City, Mo., December 12, 1861, and duty in Northern and Southern Missouri till July, 1863. See service following that of Regiment.) Cos. "A," "B," "C," "D," "I," "K," "L" and "M" moved to Rolla, Mo., February 4-6, 1862. (Cos. "I" and "K" detached to garrison, Salem, Mo., February 11, 1862. Scout to Mawameck February 12. Expedition to Mt. Vernon February 18-19. Action at West Plains February 20. Scouting after Coleman's guerillas till April. Actions near Salem February 28 and March 18. Rejoin Regiment near Forsythe April, 1862.) Regiment march to join General Curtis February 14-18. (Co. "L" detached at Springfield, Mo.) Attached to Curtis' Army of Southwest Missouri, Dept. of Missouri, February to May, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, Army of Southwest Missouri, to July, 1862. District of Eastern Arkansas, Dept. of Missouri, to October, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 4th Division, District of Eastern Arkansas, to December, 1862. 2nd Brigade, Cavalry Division, District of Eastern Arkansas, Dept. of Tennessee, to January, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, 13th Corps, Dept. of Tennessee, to April, 1863. 2nd Brigade, Cavalry Division, District of Eastern Arkansas, Dept. of Tennessee, to June, 1863. Bussy's Cavalry Brigade, Herron's Division, Dept. of Tennessee, to August, 1863. Reserve Cavalry Brigade, Army of Arkansas, to January, 1864. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 7th Army Corps, Dept. of Arkansas, to May, 1864. 2nd Brigade, Cavalry Division, 16th Corps, Dept. of Tennessee, to June, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, District of West Tennessee, to December, 1864. 2nd Brigade, Cavalry Division, District of West Tennessee, to February, 1865. 1st Brigade, 4th Division, Wilson's Cavalry Corps, Military Division Mississippi, to June, 1865. District of Georgia to August, 1865.

SERVICE - Expedition to Fayetteville, Ark., February 22, 1862. Battles of Pea Ridge March 6-8. (Cos. "D" and "M" escort prisoners to Rolla, Me., March 12-31.) March to Batesville via Cassville, Forsythe, Osage and West Plains April 6-May 1. (Cos. "L" and "M" detached at Lebanon, Mo., operating against guerillas till November, 1862; then join Cos. "E," "F," "G" and "H"). (Co. "D" guard train to Rolla, Mo., May 25 to June 20.) Action at Kickapoo Bottom, near Sylamore, May 29. Sycamore May 30. Foraging and scouting at Sulphur Rock June 1-22. Waddell's Farm, Village Creek, June 12. March from Batesville to Clarendon on White River June 25-July 9. Waddell's Farm June 27 (Co. "K"). Stewart's Plantation, Village Creek, June 27. Bayou Cache July 6 (Co. "I"). Hill's Plantation, Cache River, July 7. March to Helena July 11-14. Duty there and scouting from White River to the St. Francis till June, 1863. Expedition from Clarendon to Lawrenceville and St. Charles September 11-13, 1862. LaGrange September 11. Marianna and LaGrange November 8. Expedition to Arkansas Post November 16-21. Expedition to Grenada, Miss., November 27-December 5. Oakland, Miss., December 3. Expedition up St. Francis and Little Rivers March 5-12, 1863 (Detachment). Expedition to Big and Little Creeks and skirmishes March 6-10. Madison, Ark., March 9 (Detachment). Madison, Ark., April 14 (Detachment). LaGrange May 1. Polk's Plantation, Helena, May 25. Moved to Vicksburg, Miss., June 4-8. Siege of Vicksburg June 8-July 4. Advance on Jackson, Miss., July 5-10. Near Clinton July 8. Siege of Jackson July 10-17. Near Canton July 12. Canton, Bolton's Depot and Grant's Ferry, Pearl River, July 16. Bear Creek, near Canton, July 17. Canton July 18. At Flowers' Plantation till August 10. Raid from Big Black on Mississippi Central Railroad and to Memphis, Tenn., August 10-22. Payne's Plantation, near Grenada, August 18. Panola August 20. Coldwater August 21. Moved to Helena, Ark., August 26; thence moved to Little Rock, arriving October 1. Duty at Berton, Ark., October 1 to December 20. Expedition to Mt. Ida November 10-18. Near Benton December 1. Expedition to Princeton December 8-10. Ordered to Little Rock December 20. Regiment Veteranize January 5, 1864. Veterans on furlough January 6 to February 5. At St. Louis, Mo., February 6 to April 26. Ordered to Memphis, Tenn., April 26. Operations against Forest May to August. Sturgis' Expedition to Guntown, Miss., June 1-13. Near Guntown June 10. Ripley June 11. Smith's Expedition to Tupelo, Miss., July 5-21. Saulsbury July 2. Near Kelly's Mills July 8. Cherry Creek July 10. Huston Road July 12. Okolona July 12-13. Harrisburg, near Tupelo, July 14-15. Old Town or Tishamingo Creek July 15. Ellistown July 16 and 21. Smith's Expedition to Oxford, Miss., August 1-30. Tallahatchie River August 7-9. Holly Springs August 8. Hurricane Creek and Oxford August 9. Hurricane Creek August 13, 14 and 19. College Hill August 21. Hurricane Creek August 22. Repulse of Forrest's attack on Memphis August 21 (Detachment). Moved to Brownsville, Ark., September 2. Campaign against Price in Arkansas and Missouri September-November. Independence, Big Blue and State Line October 22. Westport October 23. Battles of Chariot, Marias des Cygnes, Mine Creek, Little Osage River October 25. White's Station, Tenn., December 4 (Detachment). Grierson's Raid from Memphis on Mobile & Ohio Railroad December 27, 1864, to January 6, 1865 (Detachment). Near White's Station December 25. Okolona December 27. Egypt Station, Miss., December 28. Mechanicsburg January 3, 1865. At the Pond January 4. Moved from Vicksburg, Miss., to Memphis, Tenn.; thence to Louisville, Ky., January 6-15, 1865, and rejoin Regiment. Regiment at St. Louis, Mo., and Louisville, Ky., till February, 1865. Moved to Chickasaw, Ala.; Wilson's Raid to Macon, Ga., March 22-April 24. Montevallo March 31. Six-Mile Creek March 31. Maplesville April 1 (Co. "L"). Ebeneezer Church, near Maplesville, April 1. Selma April 2. Fike's Ferry, Cahawba River, April 7 (Co. "B"). Montgomery April 12. Columbus, Ga., April 16. Capture of Macon April 20. Duty at Macon and at Atlanta, Ga., till August. Mustered out August 9, 1865.

Companies "E," "F," "G" and "H" ordered to Jefferson City, Mo., December 12, 1861. Attached to Army of Southwest Missouri to February, 1862. District of North Missouri to August, 1862. District of Southwest Missouri to November, 1862. Cavalry Brigade, District of Southeast Missouri, to June, 1863. Reserve Cavalry Brigade, Army of Southeast Missouri, to August, 1863, Reserve Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Arkansas Expedition, to October, 1863.

SERVICE - Engaged in operations against guerillas about Booneville, Glasgow, Fulton and in North Missouri at Lebanon, and in Southwest Missouri covering frontier from Iron Mountain to Boston Mountains till June, 1863. Companies "L" and "M" Joined November, 1862. Actions at Florida, Mo., May 22, 1862. Salt River, near Florida, May 31. Boles' Farm, Florida, July 22 and 24. Santa Fe July 24-25. Brown Springs July 27. Moore's Mills, near Fulton, July 28. Kirksville August 26. Occupation of Newtonia December 4. Harts, vine, Wood's Fork, January 11, 1863. Operations against Marmaduke April 17-May 2. Cape Girardeau April 26.

Near Whitewater Bridge April 27. Castor River, near Bloomfield, April 29. Bloomfield April 30. Chalk Bluffs, St. Francis River, April 30-May 1. Davidson's march to Clarendon, Ark., August 1-8. Steele's Expedition to Little Rock August 8-September 10. Reed's Bridge or Bayou Metoe August 27. Shallow Ford, Bayou Metoe, August 30. Bayou Fourche and capture of Little Rock September 10. Rejoined Regiment at Little Rock October 1, 1863.

Regiment lost during service 5 Officers and 79 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 4 Officers and 230 Enlisted men by disease. Total 318.

 

 

Source: A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion - Frederick H. Dyer, 1908

 


4 Ohio Cavalry Ladder Badge

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Offered is a neat ladder badge worn by a member of the 4th Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, Company I.  The badge has four ladders and a yellow ribbon attached to the back of the badge.  Written on the laders is “Co. I, 4, OHIO, Vol. Cav.”. 

 4th Ohio Cavalry

Online Books
4th Ohio Cavalry Soldier Roster - Official Roster of the Soldiers of the State of Ohio in the War of the Rebellion, 1861-1866, Volume 11, by Ohio Roster Commission (Joseph B. Foraker, Governor, James S. Robinson, Sec'y of State and H. A. Axline, Adjutant-General), 1886     View Entire Book

Regimental History
Fourth Cavalry. — Cols., John Kennett, Eli Long; Lieut.-Cols., Henry W. Burdsal, John L. Pugh, Oliver P. Robie, George W. Dobb; Majs., James E. Dresbach, Henry C. Rogers, Canduce G. Megrue, Robert E. Rogers, Peter Mathews, James Thomson. This regiment was organized at Camp Dennison and Camp Gurley in Nov. 1861, (with the exception of Cos. L and M, which were organized on Aug. 15, 1862, at Cincinnati) to serve for three years. The regiment, composed of ten companies, with 1,070 men, embarked for Jeffersonville, Ind., in Dec, 1861, then crossed into Kentucky and advanced to Bacon creek, having been assigned to the 3d division, Gen. O. M. Mitchel commanding. At Bowling Green it succeeded in capturing a train loaded with a large amount of supplies, which the Confederates were endeavoring to move south. In March John Morgan captured the forage train as it was returning to camp from Nashville, with about 30 men and 80 horses, but Col. Kennett pursued, recaptured all the men but 12 and all the horses but 16. The regiment advanced to Huntsville, Ala., where it arrived at daybreak, charged into the town and captured a train, loaded with 800 Confederate soldiers, also 17 locomotives and many cars. It was in the 2 hours' lighting at Bridgeport, Ala., where the Confederates were routed and many of them killed and captured. The regiment accompanied the unfortunate expedition toward Lexington, Ky., when John Morgan, with 2,800 men, surrounded the command and in a short time 250 of the regiment were surrendered, robbed, paroled and on their way to Ohio. The regiment participated in the battle of Stone's river, then pursued the enemy toward Shelbyville, Tenn., and on its return camped near Murfreesboro. It was frequently engaged in skirmishing and was on scouting expeditions to Liberty, Lebanon and Alexandria. With the 3d Ohio cavalry, at Snow Hill in April, 1863, it routed three regiments of Confederate cavalry, with a loss of 3 wounded and 4 captured. In May it was again engaged in an expedition against a force of Confederate cavalry at Middleton, attacked them at daybreak and drove them from their camps, which were burned. The regiment was engaged on the extreme right of the army at Chickamauga, with a loss of 32 killed, wounded and missing. Then the second battalion marched into East Tennessee, made a raid on Cleveland, captured a large number of prisoners, and burned a shot, shell and cap factory. Having reenlisted as a veteran organization and been furloughed home, the regiment was again at the front in the spring of 1864. It moved to Courtland, Ala., thence to Moulton, where at reveille the Confederate Gen. Roddey, with four regiments and two battalions of cavalry and 4 pieces of artillery, attacked the brigade, but after two hours' hard fighting was driven pell-mell from the field, the regiment losing 10 men wounded, 1 mortally. It was in the advance on Jonesboro, Ga. ; took part in the fighting at Lovejoy's Station; actively participated in the Wilson raid through Alabama and Georgia in the spring of 1865, and in the charge at Selma, Ala., lost about 50 men killed and wounded. Engagements also occurred at Montgomery, Ala., and Macon, Ga. The regiment did guard duty at the latter place until ordered home to be mustered out, this event occurring on July 15, 1865. 

Gen. G.K. Warren Monument Dedication Badge 1888

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A super badge worn by Union veterans at the 1888 General G.K. Warren monument dedication on Little Round Top!  This incredible badge is very clean and beautiful.  There is a bullion hanger.  A biege/off white ribbon hangs from the hanger.  Written on the badge is "DEDICATION Statue of Gen.G.K. Warren - Little Round Top, Gettysburg, Pa. - August 8, 1888. - 5th N.Y. Vol. Vet. Assn. - Duryee Zouaves".  Also on the top of the badge is a photo of General Warren.  A gold colored fringe is attached to the bottom of the badge.


Society of the Army & Navy of the Confederate States - Maryland Badge

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A very hard to find badge worn by veterans of the Confederate army and navy who lived in the state of Maryland after the war.  The badge has a silver bar as the hanger.  A ribbon is attached.  The drop is a Confederate battle flag with a cross attached to the top of the drop.  The drop has blue and red enamel on it.  Written on the top of the cross is "A&NCS - MD" for the Army and Navy Confederate Society of Maryland.  Written on the drop is "1861 - 1865".


4 Michigan Infantry 1890 Reunion Ribbon

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A super ribbon worn by a veteran of the 4th Michigan Infantry at their 1890 reunion.  At the top of the ribbon are mountains and trees with soldiers moving between the trees.  Written in dark red ink is "June 20, '61 - Reunion Old 4th Michigan Infantry Volunteers - June 20, '90."  The ribbon is approximately 7 1/4 inches long and 2 1/16 inches wide.


History of the 4th Michigan Infantry

Text by Jeremy Bevard

Captain, later Colonel, Harrison Jeffords with an unidentified private. Photo from National Archives.The 4th Michigan Infantry was mustered into service in Adrian Michigan on June 20th, 1861 with 1025 men including officers.  It was then sent to the seat of war near Washington to join up with the Army of the Potomac.  The men of the Fourth saw extensive action during the Peninsula campaign in 1862.  The Regiment was present at the siege of Yorktown, Williamsburg and Newbridge.  The men more than saw the elephant with fighting at Hanover Courthouse, Battle of New Bridge, Mechanicsville, Gaines Mill and Malvern Hill.  During this campaign the 4th Michigan suffered 263 casualties but the year was not over yet. 

In the fall of 1862 the fourth was held in reserve during the battle of Antietam and was part of the 5th Corps that went in pursuit of the Army of Northern Virginia.  Here they fought at Shepardstown Ford crossing it several times.  They were given orders to cross the river there and capture enemy artillery that was firing on the 5th Corps.  As they ford the river rebel bullets zipped above their heads without finding their mark.  Once across, the Fourth’s attack is successful in capturing four confederate artillery pieces and with driving the opposing infantry back.  With darkness settling in they head back across the river.  Early the next morning they are ordered to pick up any rebel stragglers and bring them back.  The following morning the 118th Pennsylvania is ordered to cross right about the time the Confederates counter attack.  The Pennsylvania boys take very heavy casualties before the survivors make it back across as the 4th Michigan is coming to the river to hold the pursuing enemy at the ford.  The holding action is successful and brings an end to the pursuit of the Confederates after Antietam.   But the year was not over and before it closed the 4th Michigan would once again see fighting at Fredericksburg and take another 14 casualties.  This was a small price compared to the two-thirds of the Irish Brigade they watched fall who fought on their right.

The year 1863 started quiet for the 4th Michigan and is slow to start but in May they are involved in the fighting at Chancellorsville taking about 30 casualties.    Not long after the 4th Michigan starts moving north with the rest of the Army toward their fate at Gettysburg.  Colonel Jeffords, commanding the Regiment, said when his men stepped on the soil of Pennsylvania they gave a deafening Wolverine cheer.  Their action at Gettysburg on July second would forever change the regiment.  The 4th Michigan went into the Wheatfield at a time when the Union forces under Zook were overrun leaving the Fourth’s flank unprotected.  The regiment became surrounded.  In the retreat, Colonel Jeffords rallied the men to save their flag, which was being captured.  As Jeffords attempted to reclaim the flag the enemy bayoneted him.  The next day the colonel died of his wounds at the age of 26.  He would be the only field officer bonneted on either side during the war.  Sadly his efforts were not successful as the flag was lost in the close combat fighting that took place in the Wheatfield.  However, the attack was able to slow the Confederate advance across the area.  The 4th Michigan at Gettysburg suffered another terrible 165 men lost to wounds, missing and killed during this horrific three-day battle.

  The rest of 1863 the men spent much time on picket duty and near the end of the year talk of whether to reenlist or not were buzzed through the Regiment.   While these discussions were taking place the men left in late November for the Mine Run Campaign.  The men were to attack Lee who was behind strong defenses.  The men lay under arms, freezing, waiting for the order to go on what they all knew was a suicide attack.  Thankfully the generals in charge realized what all the men in the ranks had already figured out and the attack was called off.  

On December 6th, 1863 the 4th Michigan along with the rest of the 5th Corps, First Division, Second Brigade arrived near Bealton Station, VA to set up winter quarters.   It took some of the men just four days to finish their cabins which included a fireplace and bunks.  Some of the officers lived in cabins their men built for them which were 9 foot by 11 foot with canvas roofs.  One officer wrote his cabin included a fireplace, stone chimney, some furniture and a door. Their only duty during December was to guard supplies at a depot.  Since Colonel Jeffords death the Regiment was still under command of Lt Colonel George Lumbard who during this downtime started to pen letters to become a colonel and continue to command the 4th Michigan.  On December 20th Major Jarus Hall read the assembled men orders about reenlistment and that they would receive a bounty, 30 days furlough and be designated “Veteran Volunteers” if a majority signed on for another three years.  The response was mixed and on Christmas just 20 men had reenlisted. The Lt Colonel and Major tried to further create excitement in reenlistment by offering a party to those that did that would include plenty of whiskey.  One such party did take place on December 29th.  Private E. E. Kingin, 4th MI Infantry. Image taken late in 1861.  Photo from the National Archives.

The year of 1864 opened with the reenlistment question still hanging in the air.  In the end about 150 of the men did not reenlist as they felt they had done their duty and it was someone else’s time to serve. Almost an equal number did reenlist.  For those men, they left for Michigan on February 25th to start their furlough. Once the men returned they didn’t have to wait long for the next campaign to begin.  By the end of April the Army was getting ready to march towards one of its toughest campaigns yet under the direction of General Ulysses Grant.

May would start with the Battle of the Wilderness.  It was a costly one for the regiment as by the end they had fewer then 200 still standing.  There was no time for rest as the fight at Spotsylvania Courthouse was just a few days later.  By May 8th the senior most officer still with the regiment was Captain David Marshall who took command of what was left.  On May 15th they received additional men that brought them back up to about 200 present for duty.  The fighting carried on into June with Cold Harbor as Grant continued to drive the Confederate Army further south toward Richmond.  Eventually, meeting them around the defenses at Petersburg, VA.  Here on June 19th those original men that did not reenlist were able to start for home.  What was left of the Fourth was enough to be an effect unit any longer because of the casualties in May and June.  They were combined with the 1st Michigan Infantry essentially bring an end to the 4th Michigan as it had existed for the last three years.

4th Michigan Infantry monument at Gettysburg. Image ©2015 Look Around You Ventures, LLC.Major Jarius Hall, now Colonel, started to recruit for a reorganized 4th Michigan back home in the summer and fall of 1864.  However, this new regiment, with a few of the original men who changed their minds, would be sent west instead of east.  The old 4th serving in the 1st Michigan thought for sure they would join this new unit.  But they received notice that they would not be transferred to join the reorganized 4th Michigan.  During the rest of the year the old 4th Michigan in with the First continued to stay outside Petersburg in trenches.  They spent this time digging, building, skirmishing and keeping their heads down.  They would see action again at Five Forks before being at Appomattox Courthouse for the surrender of Lee in April 1865.  They went to Washington to march in the Grand Review but did not get to go home as many other units did.

The reorganized 4th Michigan went west and spent the rest of 1864 into 1865 marching and camping around Nashville and Knoxville Tennessee when the war ended.  They thought they would go home but were instead transferred to New Orleans. The reunion of the old and new 4th Michigan took place in June 1865 in New Orleans.  One veteran jokingly wrote it was “a pleasure ride of about 2400 miles.”  The journey was still not over as concerns of Indian attacks and Confederate activity in Mexico sent them into Texas.  The time passed slowly as they moved around central Texas.  By May 1866 over 100 men had deserted and three times that number had been discharged for disability along with many dying from disease. 

The end finally came for the remaining 235 men when they started a two-week trip to Detroit.  The reorganized 4th Michigan arrived on June 10th, 1866 and was sent to the barracks at Fort Wayne, Detroit.   They were mustered out of service on June 12th, 1866. 

References:
The 4th Michigan Infantry in the Civil War by Martin Bertera and Kim Crawford
www.4thmichigan.com built and maintained by George Wilkinson


17 Michigan Infantry Company H Celluloid Badge

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A great badge worn by a veteran of the 17th Michigan Infantry, Company H.  The badge is a large disk with a metal holder and a celluloid center.  Written on the celluloid is "Company H - 17th Regt Michigan Infnatry".  The badge is approximately 2 inches wide.  The badge was made by the C.S. Cole & Co., 199 So. Clark Street, Chic ago, Ill. as noted by the manufacturer's mark on the back of the badge.

Seventeenth Michigan Infantry
Page 514-517

This noted regiment was organized at Detroit in the spring and early summer of 1862. Its first colonel was the late William H. Withington of Jackson, one of the best officers Michigan gave to the army. In this regiment was Captain Julius C. Burrows, for nearly thirty years a member of the house or senate in the Congress of the United States. The regiment under command of Colonel Withington left Detroit on the 27th day of August, 1862, for Washington, D. C. It was assigned to the celebrated Ninth Army Corps, so long and so well commanded by Major General Burnside. On the 14th of September, or a little more than two weeks after leaving the state, the regiment was hotly engaged at South Mountain, Maryland. Out of the 500 officers and men who went into the fight on that day, 141 were killed or wounded. This was more than many regiments suffered during the entire war. Three days later, viz.: on September 17, the regiment was again in the thick of the fight at Antietam, where it sustained a further loss of eighteen killed and eighty-seven wounded. So it came to pass that in less than three weeks from the time the young men of this regiment left their camp and friends in Michigan, 246 of their number had been killed or wounded on the field of battle.

Their splendid valor reflected luster on the state that sent them and glory on the country for which they died. General Wilcox, their division commander, says in his official report that "The Seventeenth Michigan performed a feat that may vie with any recorded in the annals of war and set an example to the oldest troops." General McClellan, commanding the army, said "The Seventeenth Michigan, a regiment which had been organized scarcely a month, charged the enemy's flanks in a manner worthy of veteran troops."

The correspondent of the New York Press wrote to his paper that "The impetuous charges of some of our regiments, particularly that of the Seventeenth Michigan, but two weeks from home, carried everything before it and the dead bodies of the enemy on that mountain crest lay thick enough for stepping stones." From the Army of the Potomac the Corps with which the Seventeenth Michigan served, was transferred to Kentucky in the late spring of 1863 and in June to the army under Grant then besieging Vicksburg. After the surrender of that stronghold it returned to Kentucky and entered East Tennessee where it did effective service until the spring of 1864, when it was transferred back to Virginia, where it again became a part of the Army of the Potomac and participated in the battles that resulted in the fall of Richmond, the evacuation of Petersburg and the surrender at Appomattox. In all this the Seventeenth fully sustained its reputation gained in the early days of its service. It lost heavily at Campbell's Station in East Tennessee. It fought splendidly in defense of Fort Saunders at Knoxville and on the 12th of May, 1864, in Grant's campaign in the Wilderness it went into action with 225 officers and men, and lost twenty-three killed, seventy-three wounded and ninety-seven prisoners, leaving on the evening of that day but thirty-six together about the colors. Perhaps no regiment that went from Michigan had a wider range of service or did harder fighting than this, whose Company K was recruited so largely from Marshall, Albion, Battle Creek, Bedford, Sheridan, Marengo and Homer in the order named. Captain Thayer was wounded at South Mountain on September 14, 1862, and resigned May 15, 1863, on account of disabilities incurred. Thomas W. Wells of Marshall, became successively sergeant, sergeant major and lieutenant in Company K, and then resigned and later entered the Eighth Regiment of Cavalry.

The 17th, after the surrender of Lee's army, returned to Washington, where on May 23, 1865, it participated with the Army of the Potomac in the great review and where on the 3rd of June following, it was mustered out of service and returned to Detroit on the 7th to be paid off and disbanded.

The total enrollment, 1,224. The total killed in action, 84. The total died of wounds, 48. The total died in Confederate prisons, 54. The total died of disease, 84. The total discharged for disability, wounds and disease, 249.


1898 Michigan at Cincinnati GAR National Encampment Badge

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A nice badge worn by Michigan Union veterans at the 1898 Grand Army of the Republic National Encampment held in Cincinnati, Ohio.  The hanger is a silver type color with "Organized May 6, 1868 - MICHIGAN" written on it.  A red ribbon is attached to the hanger with "Cincinnati 1898" written in gold type ink.  Attached tot he ribbon is a bronze colored drop with the Michigan state seal on it.  Written around the seal is "Department of Michigan - G.A.R.".  On the back of the drop is the G.A.R. logo and "32nd National Encampment G.A.R. - Cincinnati - September 1898".

84 Indiana Infantry 1908 Reunion Badge

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A super badge worn by members of the 84th Indiana Infantry at their 1908 reunion held in Dunkirk, Indiana.  The hanger is a brass type maetal with the word "Souvenir" written on it.  A blue ribbon is attached.  Written on the blue ribbon in gold type ink is "SAMUEL ORR, Colonel, 84th Indiana Volunteer Infantry Reunion - 36th Annual Reunion - Dunkirk, Ind. - Sept. 18, 1908".  A drop is attached to the ribbon and has a celluloid photograph of Colonel Orr!  A brass type metal surrounds the celluloid photograph.  The badge is made by the Whitehead & Hoag Company of Newark, New Jersey as stamped inthe back of the drop.

Regimental History
Eighty-fourth Indiana Infantry. — Cols., Nelson Trusler, Andrew J. Neff, Martin B. Miller; Lieut. -Cols., Samuel Orr, Andrew J. Neff, William A. Boyd, John C. Taylor, Martin B. Miller, George N. Carter; Majs., Andrew J. Neff, William A. Boyd, William Burres, John C. Taylor, Martin B. Miller, George N. Carter, Robert M. Grubbs. This regiment was organized at Richmond and was mustered in Sept. 3, 1862. It left the state on the 8th for Covington, Ky., where it was assigned to the defenses against the threatened invasion of Kirby Smith's forces. On Oct. 1 it moved by rail for Point Pleasant, W. Va., and moved from there on the 13th for Guyandotte, where it remained until Nov. 14. It was then in the vicinity of Cassville and Catlettsburg, Ky., until Feb. 7, 1863, when it left Catlettsburg for Louisville, which place was reached on the 17th, and the regiment was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 3d division, Army of Kentucky. It was first ordered to Nashville, then to Franklin, where it remained until June 3, being engaged in several skirmishes. It marched for Triune and was assigned to the 1st brigade, 1st division, reserve corps, Gen. Granger commanding. It was in the fight at Triune and pursuit of Bragg, the regiment marching to Middleton, Shelby villa and Wartrace, remaining there until Aug. 12. It moved to Estill springs on the 20th, thence to Tullahoma, Stevenson, Bridgeport and Chattanooga, arriving at the latter place Sept. 13. It participated in the battle of Chickamauga, where its division held the extreme left, on the first day, repeatedly repulsing desperate assaults, and on the next day materially aided Gen. Thomas in saving his army from the massed assault of the enemy, losing in the two days 125 in killed, wounded and missing. The regiment moved to Lookout mountain, thence to Moccasin point, and on Nov. 1, to Shell Mound, where it remained until Jan. 26, 1864. It was then assigned to the 2nd brigade, 1st division, 4th army corps, and moved towards Georgia via Cleveland, being engaged at Buzzard Roost. It returned to Cleveland and remained there until May 3, when it moved with the army for Atlanta. It was engaged at Tunnel Hill, Rocky Face ridge, Dalton, Resaca, Kingston, Pumpkin Vine creek, Pine mountain, Kennesaw mountain, Kolb's farm and Peachtree creek. It participated in the operations about Atlanta and in the battles of Jonesboro and Lovejoy's Station, afterward being transferred to the 2nd brigade, 3d division, and left Atlanta on Oct. 3, for Chattanooga, moving thence to Athens, Ala., and thence to Pulaski, Tenn., Columbia and Franklin, being present at the battle at the latter place on Nov. 30. It moved to Nashville, and in the battle there participated in a charge on the enemy's skirmish line, and later in a charge upon the main works of the enemy, carrying his position and driving him from the field. It moved in pursuit as far as Huntsville, Ala., and remained there until March 13, when it was ordered to eastern Tennessee, operating about Knoxville, Strawberry plains and Bull's gap, until it moved to Nashville on Apr. 18. It was mustered out June 14, 1865, when the recruits were transferred to the 57th Ind. with which they served until its muster-out in November. The original strength of the regiment was 949; gain by recruits, 78; total, 1,027. Loss by death, 207; desertion, 53; unaccounted for, 9. 

1900 Indianapolis State Reunion Badge with Medal of Honor Winner

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A nice badge worn by Union veterans and Grand Army of the Republic members at the 1900 Indianapolis Department of Indiana reunion.  The hanger of the badge has a cannon tube, crossed muskets, a saber, cannon balls, and laurel leaves.  The word "Indianapolis" is on the top of the hanger.  A red, white, and blue ribbon is attached to the hanger.  The drop has the likeness of Medal of honor winner Henry W. Lawton, 30 Indiana Infantry on it.  Written on the drop is "Lawton" and in smaller letters "J.K. Davison, Phil." who was the maker of the badge.  On the back of the drop is the Indiana state seal and "Department of Indiana - G.A.R." written on it.  There is a slight separation on the back of the ribbon.


Henry Ware Lawton (March 17, 1843 – December 19, 1899) was a highly respected U.S. Army officer who served with distinction in the Civil War, the Apache Wars, the Spanish–American War and was the only U.S. general officer to be killed during the Philippine–American War. The city of Lawton, Oklahoma, takes its name from General Lawton, and also a borough in the city of Havana, Cuba.

Early life

Lawton was born on March 17, 1843, in Maumee, Ohio. He was the son of George W. Lawton, a millwright, and Catherine (née Daley) who had been married in December 1836. Henry had two brothers, George S., and Manley Chapin.

In 1843, Lawton's father moved to Fort Wayne, Indiana, to work on a mill. The family followed him the same year. George went to California in 1850 to build shakers for the gold miners. He returned to Ft. Wayne later in 1853 and shortly after, on January 21, 1854, his wife Catherine died. She had been living with family members in or near Birmingham and Sandusky, Ohio during George's absence. According to accounts given by Andrew J. Barney, a resident of the area and family friend, given years later, Henry attended public school in Florence Twp., Ohio 1850 to 1854. Mr. Barney married the sister of Henry's mother in 1856 and for a time, Henry lived with the Barney family, and with his aunt, Marie Lawton, of Sandusky. He traveled with his father to Iowa and Missouri in 1857, returning to Ft. Wayne in 1858. He enrolled at the Methodist Episcopal College in 1858 and was studying there when the Civil War began.

Civil War

Lawton was among the first to respond to President Lincoln's call for three-month volunteers. He enlisted in Company E of the 9th Indiana Volunteers, and was mustered in to service on 24 April 1861 as one of the four company sergeants.[1] He saw action at Philippi, Laurel Hill, and Corrick's Ford, in what is now West Virginia. He was mustered on 29 July 1861 and returned home.[2] Colonel Sion S. Bass was then organizing the 30th Indiana Infantry, and Lawton re-enlisted.

Lawton at Corinth, Mississippi, after promotion to Captain

The 30th Indiana Infantry mustered into service on August 20, 1861. Lawton was his company's first sergeant but was promoted to 1st lieutenant on August 20. The 30th joined the Army of the Ohio, under General Don Carlos Buell in Kentucky and remained there for a brief period. The army moved on to Tennessee early in 1862. Its first major engagement would be at the Battle of Shiloh where Lawton's regiment suffered heavy losses. Lawton had experienced one of the bloodiest battles of the Civil War. His unit moved on and fought at Corinth, Mississippi.

Lawton's unit also fought at Iuka while attached to Buell's forces. At the age of nineteen, on May 7, 1862, outside of Corinth, he was promoted to the rank of captain.

He fought at the battles of Stones River and Chickamauga, in all, at over twenty-two major engagements. He received the Medal of Honor years later for his bravery at the Atlanta campaign. He was a brevet colonel at the end of the war.

Indian Wars

After the Civil War he studied at Harvard Law School, graduating in 1866, before returning to the army. Lawton wished for a Captain's commission in the Army which was not forthcoming. Generals William Tecumseh Sherman and Philip Sheridan wrote recommendations supporting Lawton's efforts to rejoin the Army.

Sheridan strongly urged Lawton to accept a 2nd lieutenant's commission, which he did and he joined the 41st Infantry Regiment under the command of Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie July 28, 1866. Lawton served for many years under Mackenzie, mainly as quartermaster, and also as close confidant. He developed a reputation as a fierce and determined fighter as well as one of the most organized quartermasters in the service. Lawton served with Mackenzie in most of the major Indian campaigns in the southwest, including the Fourth Cavalry's victory at the Battle of Palo Duro Canyon.

While earning a reputation as a fierce and tenacious fighter, Lawton was also regarded as having compassion for the Indians. Among those who respected Lawton was Wooden Leg, a Northern Cheyenne who was in a group of Cheyenne escorted by then Lieutenant Lawton to a southern reservation. Lawton also served as an advocate for the Indians on the reservation when he learned that the local Indian agency was short-changing the Indians on their food allotments.

Lt. Lawton as a member of the 4th Cavalry in the late 1870s

On March 20, 1879, Lawton was promoted to the rank of captain in the regular army. In 1886, he was in command of B Troop, 4th Cavalry, at Ft. Huachuca and was selected by Nelson Miles to lead the expedition that captured Geronimo. Stories abound as to who actually captured Geronimo, or to whom he surrendered. For Lawton's part, he was given orders to lead actions south of the U.S.-Mexico boundary where it was thought Geronimo and a small band of his followers would take refuge from U.S. authorities. Lawton was to pursue, subdue, and return Geronimo to the U.S., dead or alive.

Lawton's official report dated September 9, 1886, sums up the actions of his unit and gives credit to a number of his troopers for their efforts. At the same time, in his typical fashion, Lawton takes no credit for himself. Geronimo himself gave credit to Lawton's tenacity for wearing the Apaches down with constant pursuit. Geronimo and his followers had little or no time to rest or stay in one place. Completely worn out, the little band of Apaches returned to the U.S. with Lawton and officially surrendered to General Nelson A. Miles on September 4, 1886. While the debate over the person to whom Geronimo surrendered goes on, it should be remembered that Native Americans rarely 'surrendered' to junior officers. They surrendered to general officers or higher.

At various times after the campaign, Lawton was questioned by friends about the campaign. He remained tightlipped and stated that his unit simply pursued Geronimo and brought him back.

Letter from Lt. A.L. Smith of Lawton's Geronimo Campaign
Lawton, in tall hat, with B Troop, 4th Cav. on route with Geronimo to Florida, 1886.
Band of Apache Indian prisoners at rest stop beside Southern Pacific Railway, near Nueces River, Tex. (Geronimo is third from the right, in front), September 10, 1886.

On September 17, 1888, Lawton was promoted major, inspector general of the Army. On February 12, 1889, he was promoted lieutenant colonel, inspector general. His duties provided Lawton with many opportunities to develop improvements in organization and equipment for the Army and he worked in this capacity for most of the time up until the Spanish–American War.

Spanish–American War

In May 1898, he was appointed brigadier general of volunteers and assumed command of the 2nd Division, Fifth Army Corps serving under General William Rufus Shafter which was being sent to Cuba. Lawton's forces spearheaded the invasion of Cuba, at Daiquiri, a shallow beach area eighteen miles east of Santiago. The landing of American forces took place on June 22, 1898.

Lawton's force of 6,000 troops moved inland as Spanish forces retreated and he reached Siboney June 23. General Joseph Wheeler took it upon himself to jump ahead of plan and found himself in a fierce fire fight with the Spanish at the Battle of Las Guasimas. Wheeler elected to send word back to Lawton for help and Lawton's unit rushed forward to help Wheeler from his difficulties but the battle was over by the time Lawton's lead regiments arrived and they took no part in the fighting. The fact that the Spanish did not put up a prolonged resistance gave the Americans the impression they would be easy to defeat. This resulted in some miscalculations regarding the Spanish capabilities in planning future engagements.

Lawton's division was sent to take the Spanish fortress at El Caney. Preparation for the Cuban campaign had been helter-skelter and Shafter failed to disembark his siege guns. Moreover, he did not have mounted cavalry, necessary for a thorough reconnaissance of the terrain prior to engaging the Spanish forces. Generals Chaffee, Kent, and Wheeler all did independent recon prior to the El Caney and San Juan hill engagements but they provided an overly optimistic assessment of the difficulties ahead. Chaffee submitted his battle plan to Lawton who read and signed it without change. In the pre-battle meeting, Shafter and his generals agreed that El Caney would require no more than two hours to take.

In the following Battle of El Caney, Lawton's division suffered heavy casualties but eventually took the city and linked up with the rest of the U.S. forces on San Juan Hill for the Siege of Santiago. Once Santiago fell, Lawton served as military governor between early August and early October 1898. Lawton had preferred to be returned to the U.S. along with General Shafter and Fifth Corps; however, the War Department selected him as military governor of Santiago de Cuba province. A number of problems faced Lawton and Leonard Wood. A major problem involved the health of the American troops and there was the priority of returning many of them home for medical treatment.

Then there was the problem of sanitation in the city of Santiago itself. Many of the residents were under nourished, ill and in need of medical attention. Civil disorder had to be settled down and unruly Cuban soldiers, still bearing arms, were ordered to remain outside the city. Conflicts with the police occurred as they were holdovers from the Spanish regime and continued to treat the citizens in an oppressive fashion. Naturally, bars and saloons were closed for a period of time and basic law enforcement became one of the duties of Lawton and his men. Lawton had a penchant for hands-on involvement alongside his troops and no doubt was personally engaged in the day-to-day post war activity. There are news reports of Lawton personally removing insurgent flags from public buildings and working alongside his troops to maintain order.

Lawton immediately tackled the problem of law enforcement, ridding the police of tyrannical Spanish officers and replacing them with Cubans. By the end of summer, he had re-established a mounted police unit made up of Cubans to maintain order in Santiago. Eventually, taverns were re-opened and the locals were once again allowed to pursue their social pastimes.

Lawton also re-established commerce in the city and outlying areas, all the way to Havana. He worked with the Customs Bureau to create an equitable system of collections and was praised by the bureau head in Cuba for his work in raising and protecting a substantial amount of money. Disgruntled Cuban generals who early had taken their troops into the interior and posed a threat to the U.S. presence were invited by Lawton to participate in local government and in fact, became quite instrumental in establishing and protecting the peace.

Lawton suffered from a fever, possibly malaria, on and off between July and October. This fact was detected by only a few correspondents. For his part, Lawton did not make light of the illness except to a few close friends with whom he corresponded. His real condition may have been 'recurring' malarial fever since he had been diagnosed with the illness, as well as dysentery in 1876. According to National Archive records, the army surgeon who diagnosed his condition at that time recommended a six-months leave in a different climate from the one in which he was stationed. His illness forced him to take a medical leave of absence on October 6, 1898. He returned to the States on October 13 and shortly thereafter, began his preparation for the assignment that would take him to the Philippines.

It has been speculated that Lawton may have been relieved due to drinking, yet, no evidence has surfaced to confirm that rumor. One source for the information was a 'phantom' (unnamed) correspondent for the New York Evening Sun and the second was Leonard Wood, a "moralistically intolerant" person who was later believed by many in the Army to have stabbed his friend Lawton in the back. Considering the number of correspondents in Santiago on the prowl for news, or possibly a scoop, any misbehavior on the part of a senior American general would have been detected and reported. Not one irregularity showed up about Lawton over the course of three months and hundreds of news reports.

Private letters to close personal friends in the U.S. from Lawton revealed that he was concerned with the number of his troops suffering from disease, the fact that he, Lawton was experiencing a fever and perhaps malaria, and his own dislike of assignment to a desk job. He was already looking ahead to a role in the Philippine campaign.

Whatever reason for his return to the states, he came back as a major-general of volunteers, having been promoted within a week or so of his landing in Cuba. When Lawton returned, he joined General Shafter for a short period of time and then went on to Washington, D.C., where he was in conference with President William McKinley, Adjutant General Henry C. Corbin, and Secretary of War Russell A. Alger concerning conditions in Cuba. He also testified before the commission investigating the Santiago campaign and was given temporary command of the Fourth Army Corps in Huntsville on December 22. On December 29, Secretary Alger announced to the press that Lawton was being placed in command of the Army field forces in the Philippines and would be reporting to General Elwell Stephen Otis, the military governor, within a short time. Lawton also toured the country with President McKinley, and other dignitaries during the Peace Jubilee.

Philippine–American War

Maj. Gen. Lawton in the Philippines, 1899
Lawton's Funeral Procession in Washington D.C., 9 Feb. 1900

With the fighting against the Spanish over, Lawton was transferred to the Philippines to command the 1st Division of Eighth Army Corps during the Philippine–American War. There, he played a significant part in the military victories during the first part of the war, scoring victories at Santa Cruz and Zapote Bridge. He was able to inspire troops by his personal leadership and successfully incorporated tactics learned while fighting Indians in the American West.

His competency and military achievements made for bad relations between him and the Eighth Corps commander, Elwell S. Otis. Despite this, Lawton was very popular among his men and the general public and was dedicated by the colonial Americans in Philippines that his image appeared on Filipino currency issued during the American colonial period in the 1920s. A major plaza in downtown Manila was named Lawton Plaza. Although renamed in 1963 to Liwasang Bonifacio, Filipinos continue to refer to it as Lawton.[citation needed] After the Battle of San Isidro, a letter arrived at the Eighth Corps headquarters with the message: "Otis. Manila: Convey to General Law[ton] and the gallant men of his command congratulations on the successful operations during the past month, resulting in the capture this morning of San Isidro." The letter was signed by President William McKinley.

Lawton continued to experience personal attacks on his reputation. General Charles King, upon returning to the U.S. had dinner with General William Shafter. Shafter informed King that someone high in the chain of command in Manila was spreading rumors about Lawton being on drinking sprees in Manila which King emphatically denied. King wrote Lawton about his meeting with Shafter who in turn wrote adjutant general Corbin. Apparently the rumors caused General Otis to write to the Adjutant General on July 11, 1899. Corbin in turn wrote McKinley's personal secretary who had inquired about the rumors and labeled the whole affair as "mischievous gossip." (The letters are located in the McKinley Papers, Vol. 36, reel 7 of the Library of Congress.)

General Emilio Aguinaldo, first President of the Philippines, referred to Lawton as "The General of the Night." When asked why he used that reference, Aguinaldo replied that Lawton was a night general and had attacked him (Aguinaldo) so often at night, he never knew when Lawton was coming.

During the Battle of Paye, Lawton, as usual, was in the midst of the fighting and was killed by a Filipino sharpshooter, ironically under the command of a general named Licerio Gerónimo. He was the highest ranking American officer to fall in battle in either the Spanish-American or Philippine-American wars. A vacancy existed for a brigadier general in the Regular Army, and rumors had passed around for months as to who the President would promote. The final tribute of recognition from the President and army had already been paid in the form of the promotion for Lawton on the day of his death. The adjutant general's office was processing the promotion when word was received in the White House of Lawton's fate.

Lawton laid in wake at the chapel in Paco Cemetery Manila. His body left the Philippines on board the transport ship USS Thomas on December 30, 1899. The USS Thomas reached the shores of San Francisco on Tuesday, January 30, 1900. Lawton was laid to rest at Arlington National Cemetery February 9, 1900.

Tributes

Statue of Henry W. Lawton in Garfield Park in Indianapolis.

Nine years after his death in the Philippines a statue was erected in Indianapolis's Courthouse square by an act of Congress. The statue itself was created in 1906 and won a prize for heroic statuary at the Paris Salon competition in that year, a first for an American entry into that competition. The dedication ceremony for the statue was presided over by President Theodore Roosevelt and Vice President Charles W. Fairbanks, a fellow Hoosier. The Hoosier Poet, James Whitcomb Riley, composed a poem to commemorate the event, which was one of few appearances he made in the last years of his life as he suffered lingering complications from a stroke. In 1917 the monument was moved to Indianapolis's Garfield Park and rededicated.

In Manila in the Philippines, the plaza fronting the Manila Central Post Office building was named "Plaza Lawton" before it was renamed in 1963 as Liwasang Bonifacio after the Philippine hero Andrés Bonifacio. Today, the name Lawton is used to refer to the area in between the post office building (including Liwasang Bonifacio and the Manila Metropolitan Theater) all the way up to the Park n' Ride in Padre Burgos.

In 1899, the Army named a fort after Lawton. Fort Lawton was located just northwest of downtown Seattle, near the residential neighborhood of Lawton Wood. While Fort Lawton was a quiet outpost prior to World War II, it became the second largest port of embarkation of soldiers and materials to the Pacific Theater during World War II. The fort was closed by the Army in 1971, and today the bulk of the land makes up the city of Seattle's Discovery Park.

Lawton, Oklahoma is named after the general.

San Francisco's Lawton Street is named after him.[3]

He is portrayed in the 1997 miniseries Rough Riders by actor John S. Davies.

Medal of Honor citation

Rank and organization: Captain, Company A, 30th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Atlanta, Ga., August 3, 1864. Entered service at: Ft. Wayne, Allen County, Ind. Birth: Ohio. Date of issue: May 22, 1893.

Citation:

Led a charge of skirmishers against the enemy's rifle pits and stubbornly and successfully resisted 2 determined attacks of the enemy to retake the works.

Medal of Honor 1862–1896 version

G.A.R. $1 Per Day Pension Badge

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A neat badge worn by Union veterans in Ohio and Indiana endorsing a $1.00 per day pension.  The hanger of the badge is a celluloid button/pin back.  On the pin back are crossed U.S. flags.  Written around the flags is "Saved by the Boys of "61-65".  A wite ribbon is attached to the pin back.  Written in black ink on the ribbon is "I Endorse The $1 Per Day Pension as Recommended By The Departments of Ohio and Indiana G.A.R.".  On the back of the ribbon is the name "Horatio C. Claypool".  The badge was made by the Ohio Badge Company, Columbus, Ohio as noted in the back of the pin back.


1919 Elkhart, Indiana State Encampment Badge

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A very clean and nice badge worn by Indiana veterans at the 1919 Department of Indiana State encampment held in Elkhart, Indiana.  The hanger has an eagle holding a saber over crossed cannons and a Union shield.  In a rectangle under the eagle are the letters "G.A.R.".  Attached to the hanger by two chain links is a heart shaped drop with the likeness of an elk in the middle.  Written around the elk is "Elkhart - 40th Annual Encampment Department of Indiana".  A red, white, and blue ribbon is attached to the hanger and behind the heart shapped drop.  On the bottom of the ribbon is a metal drop that says "Delegate".  Attached to this drop is a Grand Army of the Republic star with the word "Delegate" on it.  The badge was made by the Whitehead & Hoag Company of Newark, New Jersey.  


1909 Crawfordsville, Indiana State GAR Reunion Badge

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A nice three piece badge worn by Indiana veterans at the 1909 Department of Indiana encampment held in Crawfordsville.  The badge is made of a bronze type metal.  The hanger is very ornate with the letters "G A R' in script and the likeness of a G.A.R. membership badge on it.  also there are crossed cannons and a pair of sabers.  The word "Delegate" is written over the GAR badge.  Attached to the hanger by a small metal chain is the first drop.  Written on the drop is "Crawfordsville's Heros - Canby, Morgan, and Manson".  The second drop is attached by one link to the first drop.  Written on this drop is "Dept. of Indiana - Crawfordsville - May, 1909".  Author and General Lew Wallace has his likeness in the center of the badge with "Wallace" written under his likeness.  Lew Wallace wrote the epic "Ben Hur".  The badge was made by the Whitehead & Hoag Company of Newark, New Jersey as noted on the back of the hanger and third drop.   

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