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1930 SCV National Biloxi, Mississippi Badge


A nice badge worn at the 1930 United Confederate Veterans/Sons of Confederate Veterans Reunion held in Biloxi, Mississippi.  The hanger is a bronze type material.  It is in the shape of the Gulf Counties of Mississippi.  Written on the hanger is "Hancock - Harrison -Jackson, Mississippi - The Magnolia State".  A red and white ribbon is attached to the hanger.  The bottom drop which is attached to the ribbon is in a round shape.  The drop has a sailing boat image in the middle of the drop.  Written around the ship is "40th Annual Confederate Reunion, Biloxi, Miss - S.C.V. - June 3-4-5-6, 1930".The badge is made by the Greenduck Company, Chicago as noted on the bottom of the drop.The badge is approximately 4 inches long and 2 inches wide.

Major General John F. Reynolds Gettysburg Monument Pin Back


A great pin back with the Gettysburg monument of Major General John F. Reynolds in the middle.  Around the monument is written "Gen. John F. Reynolds - Lancaster, PA.".  The pin back is approximately 1 1/4 inches wide.  The pin back was made by the Sommer badge Manufacturing Company, Newark, New Jersey.  

John F. Reynolds

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John Reynolds
Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds
Born(1820-09-20)September 20, 1820
Lancaster, Pennsylvania
DiedJuly 1, 1863(1863-07-01) (aged 42)
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
Place of burialLancaster Cemetery, Lancaster, Pennsylvania
AllegianceUnited States of America
Service/branchUnited States Army
Union Army
Years of service1841–1863
RankUnion Army major general rank insignia.svg Major General
Commands heldI Corps, Army of the Potomac

Mexican–American War

American Civil War

John Fulton Reynolds (September 20, 1820 – July 1, 1863)[1] was a career United States Army officer and a general in the American Civil War. One of the Union Army's most respected senior commanders, he played a key role in committing the Army of the Potomac to the Battle of Gettysburg and was killed at the start of the battle.

Reynolds was born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, one of nine surviving children of John Reynolds (1787–1853) and Lydia Moore Reynolds (1794–1843). Two of his brothers were James LeFevre Reynolds, Quartermaster General of Pennsylvania, and Rear Admiral Will Reynolds.[2] Prior to his military training, Reynolds studied in nearby Lititz, about 6 miles (9.7 km) from his home in Lancaster. Next he attended a school in Long Green, Maryland, and finally the Lancaster County Academy.[3]

Reynolds was nominated to the United States Military Academy in 1837 by Senator James Buchanan, a family friend, and graduated 26th of 50 cadets in the class of 1841. He was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the 3rd U.S. Artillery, assigned to Fort McHenry. From 1842 to 1845 he was assigned to St. Augustine, Florida, and Fort Moultrie, South Carolina, before joining Zachary Taylor's army at Corpus Christi, Texas, for the Mexican–American War. He was awarded two brevet promotions in Mexico—to captain for gallantry at Monterrey and to major for Buena Vista, where his section of guns prevented the Mexican cavalry from outflanking the American left.[4] During the war, he became friends with fellow officers Winfield Scott Hancock and Lewis A. Armistead.

On his return from Mexico, Reynolds was assigned to Fort Preble, Maine, New Orleans, Louisiana, and Fort Lafayette, New York. He was next sent west to Fort Orford, Oregon, in 1855, and participated in the Rogue River Wars of 1856 and the Utah War with the Mormons in 1857-58. He was the Commandant of Cadets at West Point from September 1860 to June 1861, while also serving as an instructor of artillery, cavalry, and infantry tactics. During his return from the West, Reynolds became engaged to Katherine May Hewitt. Since they were from different religious denominations—Reynolds was a Protestant, Hewitt a Catholic—the engagement was kept a secret and Hewitt's parents did not learn about it until after Reynolds' death.[5]

Civil War

Early assignments and the Seven Days[edit]

Soon after the start of the Civil War, Reynolds was offered the position as aide-de-camp to Lt. Gen. Winfield Scott, but declined. He was appointed lieutenant colonel of the 14th U.S. Infantry, but before he could engage with that unit, he was promoted to brigadier general on August 20, 1861, and ordered to report to Washington, D.C. While in transit, his orders were changed to report to Cape Hatteras Inlet, North Carolina. Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan intervened with the Secretary of War to get his orders changed once again, assigning him to the newly formed Army of the Potomac. His first assignment was with a board that examined the qualifications of volunteer officers, but he soon was given command of a brigade of Pennsylvania Reserves.[6]

As McClellan's army moved up the Virginia Peninsula in the 1862 Peninsula Campaign, Reynolds occupied and became military governor of Fredericksburg, Virginia. His brigade was then ordered to join the V Corps at Mechanicsville, just before the start of the Seven Days Battles. The brigade was hit hard by the Confederate attack of June 26 at the Battle of Beaver Dam Creek, but their defensive line held and Reynolds later received a letter of commendation from his division commander, Brig. Gen. George A. McCall.[7]

The Confederate attack continued on June 27 and Reynolds, exhausted from the Battle of Gaines' Mill and two days without sleep, was captured in Boatswain's Swamp, Virginia. Thinking he was in a place of relative safety, he fell asleep and was not aware that his retreating troops left him behind. He was extremely embarrassed when brought before the Confederate general of the capturing troops; D.H. Hill was an Army friend and colleague from before the war. Hill allegedly told him, "Reynolds, do not feel so bad about your capture, it is the fate of wars."[8] Reynolds was transported to Richmond and held at Libby Prison, but was quickly exchanged on August 15 (for Lloyd Tilghman).[9]

Second Bull Run, Fredericksburg, and Chancellorsville

J Renyolds.jpg

Upon his return, Reynolds was given command of the Pennsylvania Reserves Division, whose commander, McCall, had been captured just two days after Reynolds. The V Corps joined the Army of Virginia, under Maj. Gen. John Pope, at Manassas. On the second day of the Second Battle of Bull Run, while most of the Union Army was retreating, Reynolds led his men in a last-ditch stand on Henry House Hill, site of the great Union debacle at First Bull Run the previous year. Waving the flag of the 2nd Reserves regiment, he yelled, "Now boys, give them the steel, charge bayonets, double quick!" His counterattack halted the Confederate advance long enough to give the Union Army time to retreat in a more orderly fashion, arguably the most important factor in preventing its complete destruction.[10]

At the request of Pennsylvania Governor Andrew G. Curtin, Reynolds was given command of the Pennsylvania Militia during General Robert E. Lee's invasion of Maryland. Generals McClellan and Joseph Hooker complained that "a scared governor ought not to be permitted to destroy the usefulness of an entire division," but the governor prevailed and Reynolds spent two weeks in Pennsylvania drilling old men and boys, missing the Battle of Antietam. However, he returned to the Army of the Potomac in late 1862 and assumed command of the I Corps. One of his divisions, commanded by Brig. Gen. George G. Meade, made the only breakthrough at the Battle of Fredericksburg, but Reynolds did not reinforce Meade with his other two divisions and the attack failed; Reynolds did not receive a clear understanding from Brig. Gen. William B. Franklin about his role in the attack.[10] After the battle, Reynolds was promoted to major general of volunteers, with a date of rank of November 29, 1862.[11]

At the Battle of Chancellorsville in May 1863, Reynolds clashed with Maj. Gen. Hooker, his predecessor at I Corps, but by this time the commander of the Army of the Potomac. Hooker originally placed the I Corps on the extreme left of the Union line, southeast of Fredericksburg, hoping to threaten and distract the Confederate right. On May 2, Hooker changed his mind and ordered the corps to conduct a daylight march nearly 20 miles to swing around and become the extreme right flank of the army, to the northwest of the XI Corps. The march was delayed by faulty communications and by the need to move stealthily to avoid Confederate contact. Thus, the I Corps was not yet in position when the XI Corps was surprised and overrun by Lt. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's flank attack, a setback that destroyed Hooker's nerve for offensive action. Hooker called a council of war on May 4 in which Reynolds voted to proceed with the battle, but although the vote was three to two for offensive action, Hooker decided to retreat. Reynolds, who had gone to sleep after giving his proxy vote to Meade, woke up and muttered loud enough for Hooker to hear, "What was the use of calling us together at this time of night when he intended to retreat anyhow?" The 17,000-man I Corps was not engaged at Chancellorsville and suffered only 300 casualties during the entire campaign.[12]

Reynolds joined several of his fellow officers in urging that Hooker be replaced, in the same way he had spoken out against Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside after Fredericksburg. On the previous occasion, Reynolds wrote in a private letter, "If we do not get some one soon who can command an army without consulting 'Stanton and Halleck' at Washington, I do not know what will become of this Army." President Abraham Lincoln met with Reynolds in a private interview on June 2 and is believed to have asked him whether he would consider being the next commander of the Army of the Potomac. Reynolds supposedly replied that he would be willing to accept only if he were given a free hand and could be isolated from the political influences that had affected the Army commanders throughout the war. Unable to comply with his demands, Lincoln promoted the more junior George G. Meade to replace Hooker on June 28.[13]


"The Fall of Reynolds" – drawing of Reynolds' death at Gettysburg

On the morning of July 1, 1863, Reynolds was commanding the "left wing" of the Army of the Potomac, with operational control over the I, III, and XI Corps, and Brig. Gen. John Buford's cavalry division. Buford occupied the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, and set up light defensive lines north and west of the town. He resisted the approach of two Confederate infantry brigades on the Chambersburg Pike until the nearest Union infantry, Reynolds' I Corps, began to arrive. Reynolds rode out ahead of the 1st Division, met with Buford, and then accompanied some of his soldiers, probably from Brig. Gen. Lysander Cutler's brigade, into the fighting at Herbst's Woods. Troops began arriving from Brig. Gen. Solomon Meredith's Iron Brigade, and as Reynolds was supervising the placement of the 2nd Wisconsin, he yelled at them, "Forward men! For God's sake forward!" At that moment he fell from his horse with a wound in the back of the upper neck, or lower head,[14] and died almost instantly. Command passed to his senior division commander, Maj. Gen. Abner Doubleday.

For the Union side, the death of John Reynolds meant more than the loss of an inspiring leader; it also removed from the equation the one person with enough vision and sense of purpose to manage this battle.
Noah Andre Trudeau, Gettysburg: A Testing of Courage[15]

The loss of General Reynolds was keenly felt by the army. He was loved by his men and respected by his peers. There are no recorded instances of negative comments made by his contemporaries.[16] Historian Shelby Foote wrote that many considered him "not only the highest ranking [sic] but also the best general in the army."[17] His death had a more immediate effect that day, however. By ratifying Buford's defensive plan and engaging his I Corps infantry, Reynolds essentially selected the location for the Battle of Gettysburg for Meade, turning a chance meeting engagement into a massive pitched battle, committing the Army of the Potomac to fight on that ground with forces that were initially numerically inferior to the Confederates that were concentrating there. In the command confusion that followed Reynolds' death, the two Union corps that reached the field were overwhelmed and forced to retreat through the streets of Gettysburg to the high ground south of town, where they were rallied by his old friend, Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock.[18]

Possible location of General Reynolds' death

Reynolds' body was immediately transported from Gettysburg to Taneytown, Maryland, and then to his birthplace, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, where he was buried on July 4, 1863.[6] Befitting his importance to the Union and his native state, he is memorialized by three statues in Gettysburg National Military Park (an equestrian statue on McPherson Ridge, one by John Quincy Adams Ward in the National Cemetery, and one on the Pennsylvania Memorial),[19] as well as one in front of the Philadelphia City Hall.[20]

Kate Hewitt had agreed with Reynolds that if he were killed in the war and they could not marry, she would join a convent. After he was buried, she traveled to Emmitsburg, Maryland, and joined the St. Joseph Central House of the Order of the Daughters of Charity.[21]

Death controversies

Historians disagree on the details of Reynolds' death, including the specific time (either 10:15 a.m. or 10:40–10:50 a.m.), the exact location (on East McPherson Ridge, near the 2nd Wisconsin Infantry, or West McPherson Ridge, near the 19th Indiana), and the source of the bullet (a Confederate infantryman, a Confederate sharpshooter, or friendly fire). One primary source was Sergeant Charles Henry Veil, his orderly and unit Color Guard, who described the events in a letter in 1864 and then contradicted some of the details in another letter 45 years later. A letter from Reynolds' sister, Jennie, stated that the wound had a downward trajectory from the neck, implying that he was shot from above, presumably a sharpshooter in a tree or barn. Historians Bruce Catton and Glenn Tucker make firm assertions that a sharpshooter was responsible; Stephen Sears credits volley fire from the 7th Tennessee against the 2nd Wisconsin; Edwin Coddington cites the sister's letter and finds the sharpshooter theory to be partly credible, but leans towards Sears' conclusion; Harry W. Pfanz agrees that the location was behind the 2nd Wisconsin, but makes no judgment about the source of the fire. Steve Sanders, writing in Gettysburg magazine, suggested the possibility of friendly fire based on some accounts, and concludes that it is as equally likely as enemy fire.[22]

Image result for gen. john reynolds monument, lancaster, pa

1901 First Defender Monument Dedication Reading, Pennsylvania Pin Back


A super pin back commerating the 1901 First Defenders Monument Dedication on July 4, 1901 at Reading, Pennsylvania.  The pin back is approximately 1 1/4 inches wide.  The monument is in the middle of the pin back.  A U.S. flag is on the right side and a Union officer is on the left side.  Written around the edge of the pin back is "Dedication First Defenders Monument - July 4, 1901".  The pin back was made by the Keystone Badge Company of Reading, Pennsylvania. as noted on the back of the pin back.

1902 Wichita, Kansas Blue - Gray Reunion Pin Back


A wonderful, large pin back from the 1902 Wichita, Kansas Blue - Gray reunion held on September 22 - 27, 1902.  This great pin back has an armed Confederate soldier shaking hands with an armed Union soldier.  The U.S. flag is in the back ground.  Written around the edge of the pin back is "19th Annual State Reunion - Wichita, Kan. Sept. 22d - 27th, 1902".  Also on the edge of the pin back are sun flowers.  The pin back is approximately 1 3/4 inches wide.  The pin back was made by the Baltimore Badge & Novelty COmpany, Baltimore, Maryland.  The pin back is very clean and nice.

25 Massachusetts Colonel Josiah Pickett Pin Back


A nice pin back with a photograph of Colonel Josiah Pickett of the 25th Massachusetts Infantry on it.  The pin back is approximately 1 1/2 inches wide and is in good condition.  

From the "Springfield Republican," page 5, 15 January 1908:
Gen. Josiah Pickett Dead.
Was Colonel of 25th Massachusetts and Under Military Arrest for Most of His Life.
Gen. Josiah Pickett, one of the most prominent officers commanding a regiment during the civil war, colonel of the 25th Massachusetts regiment, and one of Worcester's most prominent citizens, died at 9 o'clock yesterday morning at his home in Worcester of a general breaking down of his constitution.
During the war Gen. Pickett was placed under military arrest and this was never removed. The adjutant whose duty it would have been to record the arrest was killed in the conflict, and because of the heroism displayed by Worcester's soldier the charges against him were entirely forgotten. He was always rather proud of this distinction and refused to allow any movement to formally release him from the arrest ordered by Gen. Stannard but never carried into effect.

The announcement of Gen. Pickett's death was received with sincere regret by a host of people extending far beyond the ranks of the old Soldiers.
The flags on the Worcester city hall and on the copmmon were lowered to half-mast because of his record as a public official, and the flag on the Grand Army hall was also half-masted.
Arrangements for the funeral have not been completed, but the hour is fixed.... Burial will be in Rural cemetery.

Josiah Pickett was born in Beverly, November 22, 1822, the son of Josiah and Mary (Cressey) Pickett, and was the sixth decendant of Nicholas Pickett, who landed in Marblehead in 1647. He was married in Lowell in December, 1847, to Miss Elizabeth Burnham, who lived until two years ago.
He went to Worcester in 1855, and since that time his history had been a part of the history of the city.

When there a short time he joined thw Worcester city guards, then commanded by Capt.(later Col.) George H. Ward, for whom the Worcester Grand Army post is named.


94 New York Infantry 1901 Reunion Pinback

A neat pinback worn by veterans of the 94th new York Infantry at their 1901 reunion held in Watertown, New York.  The pinback is a white color with "94th N.Y. V. Vols. Reunion - Watertown, N.Y. - March 14, 1901".  The pinback was made by the Whitehead & Hoag Company, Newark, New Jersey.  The pinback is approximately 7/8 inches wide.

94th Infantry Regiment
Civil War
Bell Rifles; Bell Jefferson Rifles; Sackett's Harbor Regiment


Mustered in: March 10, 1862
Mustered out: July 18, 1865

The following is taken from New York in the War of the Rebellion, 3rd ed. Frederick Phisterer. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company, 1912.
W. B. Camp received authority in October, 1861, as Colonel, to recruit a regiment of infantry. He was succeeded, November 4, 1861, by Gen. John J. Viele. This regiment was organized at Sackett's Harbor January 6, 1862, and there mustered in the service of the United States for three years, March 10, 1862, with Henry K. Viele as Colonel. March17, 1863, the regiment was consolidated into five companies, A, B, C, D and E, and received the 105th Infantry as its Companies F, G, H, I and K. August 10, 1864, about 100 men of the 97th Infantry were transferred to it. At the expiration of its term of enlistment the men entitled thereto were discharged, and the regiment retained in service.
The companies were recruited in Jefferson county, and the regiment left the State March 18, 1862; it served in General Wadsworth's command, Military District of Washington, from March, 1862; in 1st Brigade, 2d Division, Department of Rappahannock, from May, 1862; in same brigade and division, 3d Corps, Army of Virginia, from June 26, 1862; in same brigade and division, 1st Corps, Army of the Potomac, from September 12, 1862; in 1st Brigade, same division and corps, from December, 1862; as Provost Guard, Army of the Potomac, from May, 1863; in 1st Brigade, 2d Division, 1st Corps, Army of the Potomac, again from June, 1863; in the District of Annapolis, Md., 8th Corps, from December, 1863; in the 3d Brigade, 4th Division, 5th Corps, Army of the Potomac, from May 26, 1864; in the 1st Brigade, 2d Division, 5th Corps, from May 30, 1864; in the 1st Brigade, 3d Division, 5th Corps, from June, 1864; in the 2d Brigade, 3d Division, 5th Corps, from June 11, 1864; in the 3d Brigade, same division and corps, from November, 1864; and it was honorably discharged and mustered out, commanded by Col. Adrian R. Root, July 18, 1865, near Washington, D. C.
During its service the regiment lost by death, killed in action, 3 officers, 72 enlisted men; of wounds received in action, 1 officer, 39 enlisted men; of disease and other causes, I officer, 138 enlisted men; total, 5 officers, 249 enlisted men; aggregate, 254; of whom 37 enlisted men died in the hands of the enemy.

The following is taken from The Union army: a history of military affairs in the loyal states, 1861-65 -- records of the regiments in the Union army -- cyclopedia of battles -- memoirs of commanders and soldiers. Madison, WI: Federal Pub. Co., 1908. volume II.
Ninety-fourth Infantry.—Cols., Henry K. Viele, Adrian R. Root; Lieut.-Cols., Colvin Littlefield, John A. Kress, Samuel Moffatt; Majs., William R. Hanford, John A. Kress, D. C. Tomlinson, Sam-uel S. Moffatt, John A. McMahon, Henry P. Fish, Byron Parsons. The 94th, the "Bell Rifles." recruited in Jefferson county, was mustered into the U. S. service at Sacket's Harbor, March 10, 1862, and left the state for Washington on the 18th. It served in the defenses of Washington under Gen. Wadsworth, was assigned to the 1st brigade, 2nd division, Department of the Rappahannock in May, and to the 3d corps, Army of Virginia, June 26, with which it participated in Gen. Pope's Virginia campaign, losing 147 in killed, wounded and missing. On Sept. 12, with the same brigade, and division, the regiment was attached to the 1st corps, was active at South mountain and Antietam, and in December at Fredericksburg. The winter was passed in camp near Falmouth and in March, 1863; the regiment was consolidated into a battalion of five companies, to which were added five companies of the l05th N. Y. infantry. The regiment served for a month as provost guard and in June, 1863, returned to the 1st corps with its old brigade and division, and suffered the heaviest loss of its service at Gettysburg-245 killed, wounded or missing. It shared in the Mine Run fiasco and in December was ordered to Annapolis, where it became a part of the 8th corps. During the winter a large number of its members reenlisted and the regiment continued in service as a veteran organization. In the Wilderness campaign it served with the 5th corps, being engaged at Cold Harbor, Totopotomy and White Oak swamp. It moved with the Army of the Potomac to Petersburg and was closely engaged at the Weldon railroad, losing 178 killed, wounded or missing. On Aug. 10, 1864, the regiment was joined by the veterans and recruits of the 97th N. Y. infantry and remained on duty before Petersburg until the end of the siege, after which it was active at Five Forks, and was present at Lee's surrender. The 94th was mustered out at Washington, July 18; 1865, having lost 116 by death from wounds and 138 from other causes, of whom 37 died in imprisonment. Maj. Fish was killed in action at Five Forks.

147 New York Volunteers Celluloid Badge


A nice celluloid pin back worn by veterans of the 147th New York Volunteer Infantry at reunions and parades.  The celluloid is approximately 1 1/4 inches wide.  The pin back is red in color with "147th N.Y. Vols." written on the it.  The pin back was made by the Whitehead & Hoag Company of newark, New Jersey.

 147th Infantry Regiment

Civil War
Oswego Regiment


Mustered in: September 22, 1862
Mustered out: June 7, 1865

The following is taken from New York in the War of the Rebellion, 3rd ed. Frederick Phisterer. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company, 1912.
Colonel Andrew S. Warner received authority, August 25, 1862, to recruit a regiment in the then 21st Senatorial District of the State; it was organized at Oswego, and there mustered in the service of the United States for three years September 22 and 23, 1862. January 25, 1865, it received by transfer the veterans and recruits of the 76th Infantry not mustered out with their regiment. June 5, 1865, the men not to be mustered out with the regiment were transferred to the 91st Infantry.
The companies were recruited principally: A, B and I at Oswego; C at Richland, Albion and Williamstown; D at Fulton, Granby and Volney; E at Sandy Creek, Redfield, Boyleston and Orwell; F at Mexico, Palermo and New Haven; G at Oswego and Scriba; H at Constantia, Parish, Amboy and West Monroe, and K at Oswego, Scriba and Fulton.
The regiment left the State September 25, 1862; it served in the 2d Brigade, defenses of Washington, north of the Potomac, from September, 1862; in the Provisional Brigade, Provost Guard, Army of the Potomac, from December, 1862; in the 3d Brigade, 1st Division, 1st Corps, from January, 1863; in the 2d Brigade, 1st Division, 1st Corps, from March, 1863; in the 2d Brigade, 4th Division, 5th Corps, from March, 1864; in the 3d Brigade, 2d Division, 5th Corps, from August, 1864; in the 3d Brigade, 3d Division, 5th Corps, from September, 1864; and, under Col. Francis C. Miller, it was honorably discharged and mustered out June 7, 1865, near Washington, D. C.
During its service the regiment lost by death, killed in action, 5 officers, 107 enlisted men; of wounds received in action, 4 officers, 52 enlisted men; of disease and other causes, 2 officers, 177 enlisted men; total, 11 officers, 336 enlisted men; aggregate, 347; of whom 71 enlisted men died in the hands of the enemy.

The following is taken from The Union army: a history of military affairs in the loyal states, 1861-65 -- records of the regiments in the Union army -- cyclopedia of battles -- memoirs of commanders and soldiers. Madison, WI: Federal Pub. Co., 1908. volume II.
One Hundred and Forty-seventh infantry.—Cols., Andrew S. Warner, John G. Butler, Francis C. Miller; Lieut.-Cols., John G. Butler, Francis C. Miller, George Harney, James Coey; Majs., Francis C. Miller, George Harney, Dudley Farling, Alex. R. Penfield, James Coey. This was an Oswego county regiment, organized at Oswego and there mustered into the U. S. service on Sept. 23, 1862. It received by transfer on Jan. 25, 1865, the remnant of the 76th N. Y. The regiment left the state on Sept. 25, 1862, and after serving for a time in the defenses of Washington, north of the Potomac and in the provisional brigade, provost guard, Army of the Potomac, it was placed in the 1st division, 1st corps. It was under fire for the first time at Fitzhugh's crossing below Fredericksburg, one of the preliminary movements of the Chancellorsville campaign, losing a few men killed and wounded. It was in reserve at Chancellorsville and sustained no losses. In the 2nd (Cutler's) brigade, 1st (Wadsworth's) division 1st corps, and commanded by Lieut.-Col. Miller, it marched on the field of Gettysburg. "The brigade— Cutler's—was the first infantry to arrive on that field and to it fell the honor of opening that famous battle, the first volley coming from the rifles of the 56th Pa. When Cutler's troops were forced back, the order to retire failed to reach the 147th, as Col. Miller fell wounded and senseless just as he received it, and so the gallant band, under Maj. Harney, continued to hold its ground. A temporary success near by enabled the regiment to retire in good order; but not all, for of the 380 who entered that fight, 76 were killed or mortally wounded, 146 were wounded, and 79 were missing; total, 301." (Fox's, Regimental Losses in the Civil War.) The regiment took part in the Mine Run campaign—the last campaign of the 1st corps—sustaining a few casualties, and then went into winter quarters at Brandy Station. In March, 1864, when the 1st corps was broken up, it was assigned to the 3d brigade, 4th (Wadsworth's) division, 5th (Warren's) corps, and was actively engaged in all the battles of the corps during Grant's bloody campaign of 1864-65. While in the 5th corps it took part in the battle of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna river, Totopotomy, Cold Harbor, first assault on Petersburg, siege of Petersburg, Weldon railroad, Poplar Spring Church, Boydton road, Hatcher's run, White Oak ridge, Five Forks and Appomattox. The total casualties of the regiment from the opening of the campaign in May, 1864, until Lee's surrender, amounted to 477 killed, wounded and missing. It was mustered out near Washington, D. C, June 7, 1865, under. Col. Miller. The total enrollment of the regiment during service was 2,102, of whom 581 were killed or wounded; 9 officers and 159 men were killed or mortally wounded; 2 officers and 177 men died of disease and other causes; total deaths, 11 officers and 336 men.

70 Ohio Volunteer Infantry Shield/Ladder Badge

Offered is a wonderful badge worn by a veteran of Company A, 70th Ohio Volunteer Infantry.  The badge has two ladders and a shield as the bottom drop.  Written on the top two ladders is “CO.A – 70” OHIO”.   Written on the shield drop is “VOL. INF. – SHILOH – Apr. 6 & 7  1862”.  The shield also has a pair of crossed muskets on it. 

From Dyer's Compendium

70th Regiment Infantry. Organized at West Union, Ohio, October 14, 1861. Moved to Ripley, Ohio, December 25, thence to Paducah, Ky., February 17, 1862. Attached to District of Paducah, Ky., to March, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 5th Division, Army of the Tennessee, to July, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 5th Division, District of Memphis, Tenn., to November. 1862. 3rd Brigade, 5th Division, District of Memphis, Right Wing 13th Army Corps (Old), Dept. of the Tennessee, November, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, District of Memphis, 13th Army Corps, to December, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 17th Army Corps, to January, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 16th Army Corps, to March, 1863. 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, 16th Army Corps, to July, 1863. 3rd Brigade, 4th Division, 15th Army Corps, to August, 1864. 1st Brigade, 4th Division, 15th Army Corps, to September, 1864. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 15th Army Corps, to July, 1865. Dept. of Arkansas to August, 1865.
SERVICE.--Moved from Paducah, Ky., to Savannah, Tenn., March 6-10, 1862. Expedition to Yellow Creek and occupation of Pittsburg Landing, Tenn., March 14-17. Crump's Landing April 4. Battle of Shiloh, Tenn., April 6-7. Advance on and siege of Corinth, Miss., April 29-May 30. Russell House, near Corinth, May 17. Occupation of Corinth May 30. March to Memphis, Tenn., via LaGrange, Grand Junction and Holly Springs June 1-July 21. Duty at Memphis till November. Grant's Central Mississippi Campaign, operations on the Mississippi Central Railroad, November, 1862, to January, 1863. Moved to LaGrange, Tenn., and duty there till March 7, and at Moscow till June 9. Ordered to Vicksburg, Miss., June 9. Siege of Vicksburg June 14-July 4. Advance on Jackson, Miss., July 4-10. Bolton's Ferry, Black River, July 4-6. Siege of Jackson July 10-17. Camp at Big Black till September 26. Moved to Memphis, Tenn., thence march to Chattanooga, Tenn., September 26-November 20. Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign November 23-27. Tunnel Hill November 23-25. Mission Ridge November 25. March to relief of Knoxville, Tenn., November 28-December 28. Regiment reenlisted January 1, 1864. Veterans on furlough February. Duty at Scottsboro, Ala., till May. Atlanta (Ga.) Campaign May 1-September 8. Demonstrations on Resaca May 8-13. Near Resaca May 13. Battle of Resaca May 14-15. Advance on Dallas May 18-25. Operations on line of Pumpkin Vine Creek and battles about Dallas, New Hope Church and Allatoona Hills May 25-June 5. Operations about Marietta and against Kenesaw Mountain June 10-July 2. Brush Mountain June 15. Assault on Kenesaw June 27. Nickajack Creek July 2-5. Ruff's Mills July 3-4. Chattahoochie River July 5-17. Battle of Atlanta July 22. Siege of Atlanta July 22-August 25. Ezra Chapel July 28 (Hood's second sortie). Flank movement on Jonesboro August 25-30. Battle of Jonesboro August 31-September 1. Lovejoy Station September 2-6. Operations against Hood in North Georgia and North Alabama September 29-November 3. Reconnoissance from Rome on Cave Springs Road and skirmishes October 12-13. March to the sea November 15-December 10. Statesboro December 4. Near Bryan Court House December 8. Siege of Savannah December 10-21. Fort McAllister December 13. Campaign of the Carolinas January to April, 1865. Columbia, S.C., February 16-17. Battle of Bentonville, N. C., March 20-21. Occupation of Goldsboro March 24. Advance on Raleigh April 10-14. Occupation of Raleigh April 14. Bennett's House April 26. Surrender of Johnston and his army. March to Washington, D.C., via Richmond, Va., April 29-May 30. Grand Review May 24. Moved to Louisville, Ky., June, thence to Little Rock, Ark., and duty there till August. Mustered out August 14, 1865. Regiment lost during service 5 Officers and 70 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Officers and 188 Enlisted men by disease. Total 265.

1910 GAR National Encampment California at Atlantic City Ribbon

Offered is a nice ribbon worn by California Union veterans at the 1910 Grand Army of the Republic National Encampment held in Atlantic City, New Jersey in 1910.  The ribbon is yellow with great graphics.  The graphics have a stage coach coming through a giant Sequoyah tree.  Also a bear is looking over a cliff.  Written on the ribbon is “Department California and Nevada – Forty Fourth National Encampment G.A.R. Atlantic City – 1910 – Sept. 19 – 24”.  The ribbon is approximately 8 ¾ inches long and 2 3/16 inches wide.  There are no rips or tears on this ribbon.

3 Iowa Cavalry Ladder Badge


Offered is a nice ladder badge worn by a member of Company D, 3rd Iowa Volunteer Cavalry.  The badge has 5 pieces.  There are four ladders and a tassel.  Written on the 4 ladder bars is “Co. D, 3, IOWA, Vol. Cav.”.  The tassel is a metal tassel and has some gold color left on it. A yellow ribbon is attached to the back of the badge.




Organized at Keokuk August 30 to September 14, 1861. Moved to Benton Barracks, Mo., November 4-6, and duty there till February 4, 1862. (Cos. "E," "F" "G" and "H" detached to Jefferson City, Mo., December 12, 1861, and duty in Northern and Southern Missouri till July, 1863. See service following that of Regiment.) Cos. "A," "B," "C," "D," "I," "K," "L" and "M" moved to Rolla, Mo., February 4-6, 1862. (Cos. "I" and "K" detached to garrison, Salem, Mo., February 11, 1862. Scout to Mawameck February 12. Expedition to Mt. Vernon February 18-19. Action at West Plains February 20. Scouting after Coleman's guerillas till April. Actions near Salem February 28 and March 18. Rejoin Regiment near Forsythe April, 1862.) Regiment march to join General Curtis February 14-18. (Co. "L" detached at Springfield, Mo.) Attached to Curtis' Army of Southwest Missouri, Dept. of Missouri, February to May, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, Army of Southwest Missouri, to July, 1862. District of Eastern Arkansas, Dept. of Missouri, to October, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 4th Division, District of Eastern Arkansas, to December, 1862. 2nd Brigade, Cavalry Division, District of Eastern Arkansas, Dept. of Tennessee, to January, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, 13th Corps, Dept. of Tennessee, to April, 1863. 2nd Brigade, Cavalry Division, District of Eastern Arkansas, Dept. of Tennessee, to June, 1863. Bussy's Cavalry Brigade, Herron's Division, Dept. of Tennessee, to August, 1863. Reserve Cavalry Brigade, Army of Arkansas, to January, 1864. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 7th Army Corps, Dept. of Arkansas, to May, 1864. 2nd Brigade, Cavalry Division, 16th Corps, Dept. of Tennessee, to June, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, District of West Tennessee, to December, 1864. 2nd Brigade, Cavalry Division, District of West Tennessee, to February, 1865. 1st Brigade, 4th Division, Wilson's Cavalry Corps, Military Division Mississippi, to June, 1865. District of Georgia to August, 1865.

SERVICE - Expedition to Fayetteville, Ark., February 22, 1862. Battles of Pea Ridge March 6-8. (Cos. "D" and "M" escort prisoners to Rolla, Me., March 12-31.) March to Batesville via Cassville, Forsythe, Osage and West Plains April 6-May 1. (Cos. "L" and "M" detached at Lebanon, Mo., operating against guerillas till November, 1862; then join Cos. "E," "F," "G" and "H"). (Co. "D" guard train to Rolla, Mo., May 25 to June 20.) Action at Kickapoo Bottom, near Sylamore, May 29. Sycamore May 30. Foraging and scouting at Sulphur Rock June 1-22. Waddell's Farm, Village Creek, June 12. March from Batesville to Clarendon on White River June 25-July 9. Waddell's Farm June 27 (Co. "K"). Stewart's Plantation, Village Creek, June 27. Bayou Cache July 6 (Co. "I"). Hill's Plantation, Cache River, July 7. March to Helena July 11-14. Duty there and scouting from White River to the St. Francis till June, 1863. Expedition from Clarendon to Lawrenceville and St. Charles September 11-13, 1862. LaGrange September 11. Marianna and LaGrange November 8. Expedition to Arkansas Post November 16-21. Expedition to Grenada, Miss., November 27-December 5. Oakland, Miss., December 3. Expedition up St. Francis and Little Rivers March 5-12, 1863 (Detachment). Expedition to Big and Little Creeks and skirmishes March 6-10. Madison, Ark., March 9 (Detachment). Madison, Ark., April 14 (Detachment). LaGrange May 1. Polk's Plantation, Helena, May 25. Moved to Vicksburg, Miss., June 4-8. Siege of Vicksburg June 8-July 4. Advance on Jackson, Miss., July 5-10. Near Clinton July 8. Siege of Jackson July 10-17. Near Canton July 12. Canton, Bolton's Depot and Grant's Ferry, Pearl River, July 16. Bear Creek, near Canton, July 17. Canton July 18. At Flowers' Plantation till August 10. Raid from Big Black on Mississippi Central Railroad and to Memphis, Tenn., August 10-22. Payne's Plantation, near Grenada, August 18. Panola August 20. Coldwater August 21. Moved to Helena, Ark., August 26; thence moved to Little Rock, arriving October 1. Duty at Berton, Ark., October 1 to December 20. Expedition to Mt. Ida November 10-18. Near Benton December 1. Expedition to Princeton December 8-10. Ordered to Little Rock December 20. Regiment Veteranize January 5, 1864. Veterans on furlough January 6 to February 5. At St. Louis, Mo., February 6 to April 26. Ordered to Memphis, Tenn., April 26. Operations against Forest May to August. Sturgis' Expedition to Guntown, Miss., June 1-13. Near Guntown June 10. Ripley June 11. Smith's Expedition to Tupelo, Miss., July 5-21. Saulsbury July 2. Near Kelly's Mills July 8. Cherry Creek July 10. Huston Road July 12. Okolona July 12-13. Harrisburg, near Tupelo, July 14-15. Old Town or Tishamingo Creek July 15. Ellistown July 16 and 21. Smith's Expedition to Oxford, Miss., August 1-30. Tallahatchie River August 7-9. Holly Springs August 8. Hurricane Creek and Oxford August 9. Hurricane Creek August 13, 14 and 19. College Hill August 21. Hurricane Creek August 22. Repulse of Forrest's attack on Memphis August 21 (Detachment). Moved to Brownsville, Ark., September 2. Campaign against Price in Arkansas and Missouri September-November. Independence, Big Blue and State Line October 22. Westport October 23. Battles of Chariot, Marias des Cygnes, Mine Creek, Little Osage River October 25. White's Station, Tenn., December 4 (Detachment). Grierson's Raid from Memphis on Mobile & Ohio Railroad December 27, 1864, to January 6, 1865 (Detachment). Near White's Station December 25. Okolona December 27. Egypt Station, Miss., December 28. Mechanicsburg January 3, 1865. At the Pond January 4. Moved from Vicksburg, Miss., to Memphis, Tenn.; thence to Louisville, Ky., January 6-15, 1865, and rejoin Regiment. Regiment at St. Louis, Mo., and Louisville, Ky., till February, 1865. Moved to Chickasaw, Ala.; Wilson's Raid to Macon, Ga., March 22-April 24. Montevallo March 31. Six-Mile Creek March 31. Maplesville April 1 (Co. "L"). Ebeneezer Church, near Maplesville, April 1. Selma April 2. Fike's Ferry, Cahawba River, April 7 (Co. "B"). Montgomery April 12. Columbus, Ga., April 16. Capture of Macon April 20. Duty at Macon and at Atlanta, Ga., till August. Mustered out August 9, 1865.

Companies "E," "F," "G" and "H" ordered to Jefferson City, Mo., December 12, 1861. Attached to Army of Southwest Missouri to February, 1862. District of North Missouri to August, 1862. District of Southwest Missouri to November, 1862. Cavalry Brigade, District of Southeast Missouri, to June, 1863. Reserve Cavalry Brigade, Army of Southeast Missouri, to August, 1863, Reserve Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Arkansas Expedition, to October, 1863.

SERVICE - Engaged in operations against guerillas about Booneville, Glasgow, Fulton and in North Missouri at Lebanon, and in Southwest Missouri covering frontier from Iron Mountain to Boston Mountains till June, 1863. Companies "L" and "M" Joined November, 1862. Actions at Florida, Mo., May 22, 1862. Salt River, near Florida, May 31. Boles' Farm, Florida, July 22 and 24. Santa Fe July 24-25. Brown Springs July 27. Moore's Mills, near Fulton, July 28. Kirksville August 26. Occupation of Newtonia December 4. Harts, vine, Wood's Fork, January 11, 1863. Operations against Marmaduke April 17-May 2. Cape Girardeau April 26.

Near Whitewater Bridge April 27. Castor River, near Bloomfield, April 29. Bloomfield April 30. Chalk Bluffs, St. Francis River, April 30-May 1. Davidson's march to Clarendon, Ark., August 1-8. Steele's Expedition to Little Rock August 8-September 10. Reed's Bridge or Bayou Metoe August 27. Shallow Ford, Bayou Metoe, August 30. Bayou Fourche and capture of Little Rock September 10. Rejoined Regiment at Little Rock October 1, 1863.

Regiment lost during service 5 Officers and 79 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 4 Officers and 230 Enlisted men by disease. Total 318.



Source: A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion - Frederick H. Dyer, 1908


4 Ohio Cavalry Ladder Badge

Offered is a neat ladder badge worn by a member of the 4th Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, Company I.  The badge has four ladders and a yellow ribbon attached to the back of the badge.  Written on the laders is “Co. I, 4, OHIO, Vol. Cav.”. 

 4th Ohio Cavalry

Online Books
4th Ohio Cavalry Soldier Roster - Official Roster of the Soldiers of the State of Ohio in the War of the Rebellion, 1861-1866, Volume 11, by Ohio Roster Commission (Joseph B. Foraker, Governor, James S. Robinson, Sec'y of State and H. A. Axline, Adjutant-General), 1886     View Entire Book

Regimental History
Fourth Cavalry. — Cols., John Kennett, Eli Long; Lieut.-Cols., Henry W. Burdsal, John L. Pugh, Oliver P. Robie, George W. Dobb; Majs., James E. Dresbach, Henry C. Rogers, Canduce G. Megrue, Robert E. Rogers, Peter Mathews, James Thomson. This regiment was organized at Camp Dennison and Camp Gurley in Nov. 1861, (with the exception of Cos. L and M, which were organized on Aug. 15, 1862, at Cincinnati) to serve for three years. The regiment, composed of ten companies, with 1,070 men, embarked for Jeffersonville, Ind., in Dec, 1861, then crossed into Kentucky and advanced to Bacon creek, having been assigned to the 3d division, Gen. O. M. Mitchel commanding. At Bowling Green it succeeded in capturing a train loaded with a large amount of supplies, which the Confederates were endeavoring to move south. In March John Morgan captured the forage train as it was returning to camp from Nashville, with about 30 men and 80 horses, but Col. Kennett pursued, recaptured all the men but 12 and all the horses but 16. The regiment advanced to Huntsville, Ala., where it arrived at daybreak, charged into the town and captured a train, loaded with 800 Confederate soldiers, also 17 locomotives and many cars. It was in the 2 hours' lighting at Bridgeport, Ala., where the Confederates were routed and many of them killed and captured. The regiment accompanied the unfortunate expedition toward Lexington, Ky., when John Morgan, with 2,800 men, surrounded the command and in a short time 250 of the regiment were surrendered, robbed, paroled and on their way to Ohio. The regiment participated in the battle of Stone's river, then pursued the enemy toward Shelbyville, Tenn., and on its return camped near Murfreesboro. It was frequently engaged in skirmishing and was on scouting expeditions to Liberty, Lebanon and Alexandria. With the 3d Ohio cavalry, at Snow Hill in April, 1863, it routed three regiments of Confederate cavalry, with a loss of 3 wounded and 4 captured. In May it was again engaged in an expedition against a force of Confederate cavalry at Middleton, attacked them at daybreak and drove them from their camps, which were burned. The regiment was engaged on the extreme right of the army at Chickamauga, with a loss of 32 killed, wounded and missing. Then the second battalion marched into East Tennessee, made a raid on Cleveland, captured a large number of prisoners, and burned a shot, shell and cap factory. Having reenlisted as a veteran organization and been furloughed home, the regiment was again at the front in the spring of 1864. It moved to Courtland, Ala., thence to Moulton, where at reveille the Confederate Gen. Roddey, with four regiments and two battalions of cavalry and 4 pieces of artillery, attacked the brigade, but after two hours' hard fighting was driven pell-mell from the field, the regiment losing 10 men wounded, 1 mortally. It was in the advance on Jonesboro, Ga. ; took part in the fighting at Lovejoy's Station; actively participated in the Wilson raid through Alabama and Georgia in the spring of 1865, and in the charge at Selma, Ala., lost about 50 men killed and wounded. Engagements also occurred at Montgomery, Ala., and Macon, Ga. The regiment did guard duty at the latter place until ordered home to be mustered out, this event occurring on July 15, 1865. 

Gen. G.K. Warren Monument Dedication Badge 1888


A super badge worn by Union veterans at the 1888 General G.K. Warren monument dedication on Little Round Top!  This incredible badge is very clean and beautiful.  There is a bullion hanger.  A biege/off white ribbon hangs from the hanger.  Written on the badge is "DEDICATION Statue of Gen.G.K. Warren - Little Round Top, Gettysburg, Pa. - August 8, 1888. - 5th N.Y. Vol. Vet. Assn. - Duryee Zouaves".  Also on the top of the badge is a photo of General Warren.  A gold colored fringe is attached to the bottom of the badge.

Society of the Army & Navy of the Confederate States - Maryland Badge


A very hard to find badge worn by veterans of the Confederate army and navy who lived in the state of Maryland after the war.  The badge has a silver bar as the hanger.  A ribbon is attached.  The drop is a Confederate battle flag with a cross attached to the top of the drop.  The drop has blue and red enamel on it.  Written on the top of the cross is "A&NCS - MD" for the Army and Navy Confederate Society of Maryland.  Written on the drop is "1861 - 1865".

4 Michigan Infantry 1890 Reunion Ribbon


A super ribbon worn by a veteran of the 4th Michigan Infantry at their 1890 reunion.  At the top of the ribbon are mountains and trees with soldiers moving between the trees.  Written in dark red ink is "June 20, '61 - Reunion Old 4th Michigan Infantry Volunteers - June 20, '90."  The ribbon is approximately 7 1/4 inches long and 2 1/16 inches wide.

History of the 4th Michigan Infantry

Text by Jeremy Bevard

Captain, later Colonel, Harrison Jeffords with an unidentified private. Photo from National Archives.The 4th Michigan Infantry was mustered into service in Adrian Michigan on June 20th, 1861 with 1025 men including officers.  It was then sent to the seat of war near Washington to join up with the Army of the Potomac.  The men of the Fourth saw extensive action during the Peninsula campaign in 1862.  The Regiment was present at the siege of Yorktown, Williamsburg and Newbridge.  The men more than saw the elephant with fighting at Hanover Courthouse, Battle of New Bridge, Mechanicsville, Gaines Mill and Malvern Hill.  During this campaign the 4th Michigan suffered 263 casualties but the year was not over yet. 

In the fall of 1862 the fourth was held in reserve during the battle of Antietam and was part of the 5th Corps that went in pursuit of the Army of Northern Virginia.  Here they fought at Shepardstown Ford crossing it several times.  They were given orders to cross the river there and capture enemy artillery that was firing on the 5th Corps.  As they ford the river rebel bullets zipped above their heads without finding their mark.  Once across, the Fourth’s attack is successful in capturing four confederate artillery pieces and with driving the opposing infantry back.  With darkness settling in they head back across the river.  Early the next morning they are ordered to pick up any rebel stragglers and bring them back.  The following morning the 118th Pennsylvania is ordered to cross right about the time the Confederates counter attack.  The Pennsylvania boys take very heavy casualties before the survivors make it back across as the 4th Michigan is coming to the river to hold the pursuing enemy at the ford.  The holding action is successful and brings an end to the pursuit of the Confederates after Antietam.   But the year was not over and before it closed the 4th Michigan would once again see fighting at Fredericksburg and take another 14 casualties.  This was a small price compared to the two-thirds of the Irish Brigade they watched fall who fought on their right.

The year 1863 started quiet for the 4th Michigan and is slow to start but in May they are involved in the fighting at Chancellorsville taking about 30 casualties.    Not long after the 4th Michigan starts moving north with the rest of the Army toward their fate at Gettysburg.  Colonel Jeffords, commanding the Regiment, said when his men stepped on the soil of Pennsylvania they gave a deafening Wolverine cheer.  Their action at Gettysburg on July second would forever change the regiment.  The 4th Michigan went into the Wheatfield at a time when the Union forces under Zook were overrun leaving the Fourth’s flank unprotected.  The regiment became surrounded.  In the retreat, Colonel Jeffords rallied the men to save their flag, which was being captured.  As Jeffords attempted to reclaim the flag the enemy bayoneted him.  The next day the colonel died of his wounds at the age of 26.  He would be the only field officer bonneted on either side during the war.  Sadly his efforts were not successful as the flag was lost in the close combat fighting that took place in the Wheatfield.  However, the attack was able to slow the Confederate advance across the area.  The 4th Michigan at Gettysburg suffered another terrible 165 men lost to wounds, missing and killed during this horrific three-day battle.

  The rest of 1863 the men spent much time on picket duty and near the end of the year talk of whether to reenlist or not were buzzed through the Regiment.   While these discussions were taking place the men left in late November for the Mine Run Campaign.  The men were to attack Lee who was behind strong defenses.  The men lay under arms, freezing, waiting for the order to go on what they all knew was a suicide attack.  Thankfully the generals in charge realized what all the men in the ranks had already figured out and the attack was called off.  

On December 6th, 1863 the 4th Michigan along with the rest of the 5th Corps, First Division, Second Brigade arrived near Bealton Station, VA to set up winter quarters.   It took some of the men just four days to finish their cabins which included a fireplace and bunks.  Some of the officers lived in cabins their men built for them which were 9 foot by 11 foot with canvas roofs.  One officer wrote his cabin included a fireplace, stone chimney, some furniture and a door. Their only duty during December was to guard supplies at a depot.  Since Colonel Jeffords death the Regiment was still under command of Lt Colonel George Lumbard who during this downtime started to pen letters to become a colonel and continue to command the 4th Michigan.  On December 20th Major Jarus Hall read the assembled men orders about reenlistment and that they would receive a bounty, 30 days furlough and be designated “Veteran Volunteers” if a majority signed on for another three years.  The response was mixed and on Christmas just 20 men had reenlisted. The Lt Colonel and Major tried to further create excitement in reenlistment by offering a party to those that did that would include plenty of whiskey.  One such party did take place on December 29th.  Private E. E. Kingin, 4th MI Infantry. Image taken late in 1861.  Photo from the National Archives.

The year of 1864 opened with the reenlistment question still hanging in the air.  In the end about 150 of the men did not reenlist as they felt they had done their duty and it was someone else’s time to serve. Almost an equal number did reenlist.  For those men, they left for Michigan on February 25th to start their furlough. Once the men returned they didn’t have to wait long for the next campaign to begin.  By the end of April the Army was getting ready to march towards one of its toughest campaigns yet under the direction of General Ulysses Grant.

May would start with the Battle of the Wilderness.  It was a costly one for the regiment as by the end they had fewer then 200 still standing.  There was no time for rest as the fight at Spotsylvania Courthouse was just a few days later.  By May 8th the senior most officer still with the regiment was Captain David Marshall who took command of what was left.  On May 15th they received additional men that brought them back up to about 200 present for duty.  The fighting carried on into June with Cold Harbor as Grant continued to drive the Confederate Army further south toward Richmond.  Eventually, meeting them around the defenses at Petersburg, VA.  Here on June 19th those original men that did not reenlist were able to start for home.  What was left of the Fourth was enough to be an effect unit any longer because of the casualties in May and June.  They were combined with the 1st Michigan Infantry essentially bring an end to the 4th Michigan as it had existed for the last three years.

4th Michigan Infantry monument at Gettysburg. Image ©2015 Look Around You Ventures, LLC.Major Jarius Hall, now Colonel, started to recruit for a reorganized 4th Michigan back home in the summer and fall of 1864.  However, this new regiment, with a few of the original men who changed their minds, would be sent west instead of east.  The old 4th serving in the 1st Michigan thought for sure they would join this new unit.  But they received notice that they would not be transferred to join the reorganized 4th Michigan.  During the rest of the year the old 4th Michigan in with the First continued to stay outside Petersburg in trenches.  They spent this time digging, building, skirmishing and keeping their heads down.  They would see action again at Five Forks before being at Appomattox Courthouse for the surrender of Lee in April 1865.  They went to Washington to march in the Grand Review but did not get to go home as many other units did.

The reorganized 4th Michigan went west and spent the rest of 1864 into 1865 marching and camping around Nashville and Knoxville Tennessee when the war ended.  They thought they would go home but were instead transferred to New Orleans. The reunion of the old and new 4th Michigan took place in June 1865 in New Orleans.  One veteran jokingly wrote it was “a pleasure ride of about 2400 miles.”  The journey was still not over as concerns of Indian attacks and Confederate activity in Mexico sent them into Texas.  The time passed slowly as they moved around central Texas.  By May 1866 over 100 men had deserted and three times that number had been discharged for disability along with many dying from disease. 

The end finally came for the remaining 235 men when they started a two-week trip to Detroit.  The reorganized 4th Michigan arrived on June 10th, 1866 and was sent to the barracks at Fort Wayne, Detroit.   They were mustered out of service on June 12th, 1866. 

The 4th Michigan Infantry in the Civil War by Martin Bertera and Kim Crawford built and maintained by George Wilkinson

17 Michigan Infantry Company H Celluloid Badge

A great badge worn by a veteran of the 17th Michigan Infantry, Company H.  The badge is a large disk with a metal holder and a celluloid center.  Written on the celluloid is "Company H - 17th Regt Michigan Infnatry".  The badge is approximately 2 inches wide.  The badge was made by the C.S. Cole & Co., 199 So. Clark Street, Chic ago, Ill. as noted by the manufacturer's mark on the back of the badge.

Seventeenth Michigan Infantry
Page 514-517

This noted regiment was organized at Detroit in the spring and early summer of 1862. Its first colonel was the late William H. Withington of Jackson, one of the best officers Michigan gave to the army. In this regiment was Captain Julius C. Burrows, for nearly thirty years a member of the house or senate in the Congress of the United States. The regiment under command of Colonel Withington left Detroit on the 27th day of August, 1862, for Washington, D. C. It was assigned to the celebrated Ninth Army Corps, so long and so well commanded by Major General Burnside. On the 14th of September, or a little more than two weeks after leaving the state, the regiment was hotly engaged at South Mountain, Maryland. Out of the 500 officers and men who went into the fight on that day, 141 were killed or wounded. This was more than many regiments suffered during the entire war. Three days later, viz.: on September 17, the regiment was again in the thick of the fight at Antietam, where it sustained a further loss of eighteen killed and eighty-seven wounded. So it came to pass that in less than three weeks from the time the young men of this regiment left their camp and friends in Michigan, 246 of their number had been killed or wounded on the field of battle.

Their splendid valor reflected luster on the state that sent them and glory on the country for which they died. General Wilcox, their division commander, says in his official report that "The Seventeenth Michigan performed a feat that may vie with any recorded in the annals of war and set an example to the oldest troops." General McClellan, commanding the army, said "The Seventeenth Michigan, a regiment which had been organized scarcely a month, charged the enemy's flanks in a manner worthy of veteran troops."

The correspondent of the New York Press wrote to his paper that "The impetuous charges of some of our regiments, particularly that of the Seventeenth Michigan, but two weeks from home, carried everything before it and the dead bodies of the enemy on that mountain crest lay thick enough for stepping stones." From the Army of the Potomac the Corps with which the Seventeenth Michigan served, was transferred to Kentucky in the late spring of 1863 and in June to the army under Grant then besieging Vicksburg. After the surrender of that stronghold it returned to Kentucky and entered East Tennessee where it did effective service until the spring of 1864, when it was transferred back to Virginia, where it again became a part of the Army of the Potomac and participated in the battles that resulted in the fall of Richmond, the evacuation of Petersburg and the surrender at Appomattox. In all this the Seventeenth fully sustained its reputation gained in the early days of its service. It lost heavily at Campbell's Station in East Tennessee. It fought splendidly in defense of Fort Saunders at Knoxville and on the 12th of May, 1864, in Grant's campaign in the Wilderness it went into action with 225 officers and men, and lost twenty-three killed, seventy-three wounded and ninety-seven prisoners, leaving on the evening of that day but thirty-six together about the colors. Perhaps no regiment that went from Michigan had a wider range of service or did harder fighting than this, whose Company K was recruited so largely from Marshall, Albion, Battle Creek, Bedford, Sheridan, Marengo and Homer in the order named. Captain Thayer was wounded at South Mountain on September 14, 1862, and resigned May 15, 1863, on account of disabilities incurred. Thomas W. Wells of Marshall, became successively sergeant, sergeant major and lieutenant in Company K, and then resigned and later entered the Eighth Regiment of Cavalry.

The 17th, after the surrender of Lee's army, returned to Washington, where on May 23, 1865, it participated with the Army of the Potomac in the great review and where on the 3rd of June following, it was mustered out of service and returned to Detroit on the 7th to be paid off and disbanded.

The total enrollment, 1,224. The total killed in action, 84. The total died of wounds, 48. The total died in Confederate prisons, 54. The total died of disease, 84. The total discharged for disability, wounds and disease, 249.

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J. Thompson Brown UCV & Virginia's Commissioner, Gettysburg 1913 Reunion Card

Catalog update 04/20/2018
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