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Lt. Colonel Joshua S. Fletcher - 11 U.S. Regular Infantry - CDV

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A nice image of Lt. Colonel Joshua S. Fletcher of the 11th United States Regular Infantry.  Written below the image in period ink is "J.S. Fletcher - Bvt. Lt. Col. USA - Capt. 11th Infy".  The backmark on the image is "Anderson & Co. - 1311 Main St. - Richmond, VA.".  Fletcher was a Captain in March 1862.  He was breveted Major in August 1864, and breveted Lt. Colonel just 17 days later on August 18, 1864.  Fletcher was wounded at Weldon Railroad. 
 
 

The fourth[1][2] 11th Infantry was organized on May 4, 1861 by direction of the President.[8] On May 14, 1861, President Abraham Lincoln issued an executive order, directing an increase of the regimental organizations of the Regular Army. The 11th Infantry was the first, numerically, of the nine infantry regiments, of three battalions of eight companies each, were of the increase authorized. In G. O. No. 33, A. G. O., series of 1861, in contrast to the original ten regular regiments of infantry, which were organized on the traditional ten-company line. The 11th Infantry was organized at Fort Independence, Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, as regimental headquarters, and which remained the 11th's headquarters during the War.[9] Erasmus D. Keyes was served as colonel of the 11th U.S. Infantry from 14 May 1861 to 6 May 1864.[1] William S. Ketchum served as colonel of the 11th U.S. Infantry 6 May 1864 to 15 March 1869.[1]

After six companies had been organized and assigned to the 1st Battalion, 11th Infantry Regiment, it was ordered to Perryville, Maryland, October 10, 1861, and duty there until March 1862. Ordered to Washington, D.C. Attached to Sykes' Regular Infantry, Reserve Brigade, Army Potomac, to May 1862. The 11th then campaigned September 1863 to November 1864 as part of the 5th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac and 8th Army Corps, Middle Department, to January 1865.[8]

The 11th took part in the following: Peninsula Campaign, Siege of Yorktown, Battle of Mechanicsville, Gaines' Mill, Turkey Bridge June 30, Battle of Malvern Hill Malvern Hill, At Harrison's Landing until August 16. Movement to Fortress Monroe, thence to Centerville August 16–28. Pope's Northern Virginia Campaign, Battle of Groveton August 29, Second Battle of Bull Run, Maryland Campaign, Battle of Antietam, Shepherdstown Ford September 19–20, Battle of Fredericksburg, "Mud March", Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6, Battle of Chancellorsville, Gettysburg Campaign, Battle of Gettysburg, Pursuit of Lee July 5–24. On special duty at New York August 21-September 14. Rejoined army, Bristoe Campaign, Second Battle of Rappahannock Station, Mine Run Campaign, Rapidan Campaign, Battle of the Wilderness, Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, North Anna River, Pamunkey May 26–28, Battle of Totopotomoy Creek, Battle of Cold Harbor, Bethesda Church June 1–3, Second Battle of Petersburg, Siege of Petersburg, Mine Explosion, Petersburg, Weldon Railroad, Poplar Springs Church, Peeble's Farm, Boydton Plank Road, Hatcher's Run.[8]

Moved to Fort Hamilton, New York Harbor, November 2, thence to Baltimore, Maryland., November 18, and to Annapolis, Maryland., December 5. Duty at Camp Parole, Annapolis, Md., until January 26, 1865. Ordered to City Point, Virginia., January 26, and camp near Gen. Grant's Headquarters until March 8. Provost duty at Headquarters, Army Potomac, until May, and at Richmond. Va., until October, 1865.[8]

The regiment lost during the Civil War 8 Officers and 117 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Officers and 86 Enlisted men by disease. Total, 213.[8]

After the surrender, the 11th Infantry with other Regular troops, was sent to Richmond, Va., where it arrived May 3d. It did provost duty in Richmond until the civil government of the city was organized, and at Libby Prison until its use was discontinued. During the summer and fall of 1865 the twenty-four companies of the regiment were organized. In the summer of 1866, the regiment suffered a great mortality from cholera.[10]


Captain Richard Robins - 11 U.S. Regular Infantry - CDV

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A neat image of Captain Richard Robins of the 11th United States Infantry.  Robins mustered in as a private in October 1861.  He was promoted to corporal and then 2nd lieutenant.  On July 2, 1863, at the battle of Gettysburg, he was promoted by brevet to 1st Lieutenat for Gallant service.  This promotion was confirmed on July 25, 1863.  He was promoted to Captain by brevet on March 13, 1865.  He stid in the army until July 1868.
 
This image was taken while Robins was on duty after the war in Richmond, Virginia.  The photo was taken by C.R. Rees & Bro. - Richmond, Va.  as noted on the front of the carte underneath the photo.  The backmark is "C.R. Rees & Bro. Photographic Artisits, 913 Main St., Bet 9th & 10th, Richmond, VA.".
 
Civil War

The fourth[1][2] 11th Infantry was organized on May 4, 1861 by direction of the President.[8] On May 14, 1861, President Abraham Lincoln issued an executive order, directing an increase of the regimental organizations of the Regular Army. The 11th Infantry was the first, numerically, of the nine infantry regiments, of three battalions of eight companies each, were of the increase authorized. In G. O. No. 33, A. G. O., series of 1861, in contrast to the original ten regular regiments of infantry, which were organized on the traditional ten-company line. The 11th Infantry was organized at Fort Independence, Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, as regimental headquarters, and which remained the 11th's headquarters during the War.[9] Erasmus D. Keyes was served as colonel of the 11th U.S. Infantry from 14 May 1861 to 6 May 1864.[1] William S. Ketchum served as colonel of the 11th U.S. Infantry 6 May 1864 to 15 March 1869.[1]

After six companies had been organized and assigned to the 1st Battalion, 11th Infantry Regiment, it was ordered to Perryville, Maryland, October 10, 1861, and duty there until March 1862. Ordered to Washington, D.C. Attached to Sykes' Regular Infantry, Reserve Brigade, Army Potomac, to May 1862. The 11th then campaigned September 1863 to November 1864 as part of the 5th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac and 8th Army Corps, Middle Department, to January 1865.[8]

The 11th took part in the following: Peninsula Campaign, Siege of Yorktown, Battle of Mechanicsville, Gaines' Mill, Turkey Bridge June 30, Battle of Malvern Hill Malvern Hill, At Harrison's Landing until August 16. Movement to Fortress Monroe, thence to Centerville August 16–28. Pope's Northern Virginia Campaign, Battle of Groveton August 29, Second Battle of Bull Run, Maryland Campaign, Battle of Antietam, Shepherdstown Ford September 19–20, Battle of Fredericksburg, "Mud March", Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6, Battle of Chancellorsville, Gettysburg Campaign, Battle of Gettysburg, Pursuit of Lee July 5–24. On special duty at New York August 21-September 14. Rejoined army, Bristoe Campaign, Second Battle of Rappahannock Station, Mine Run Campaign, Rapidan Campaign, Battle of the Wilderness, Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, North Anna River, Pamunkey May 26–28, Battle of Totopotomoy Creek, Battle of Cold Harbor, Bethesda Church June 1–3, Second Battle of Petersburg, Siege of Petersburg, Mine Explosion, Petersburg, Weldon Railroad, Poplar Springs Church, Peeble's Farm, Boydton Plank Road, Hatcher's Run.[8]

Moved to Fort Hamilton, New York Harbor, November 2, thence to Baltimore, Maryland., November 18, and to Annapolis, Maryland., December 5. Duty at Camp Parole, Annapolis, Md., until January 26, 1865. Ordered to City Point, Virginia., January 26, and camp near Gen. Grant's Headquarters until March 8. Provost duty at Headquarters, Army Potomac, until May, and at Richmond. Va., until October, 1865.[8]

The regiment lost during the Civil War 8 Officers and 117 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Officers and 86 Enlisted men by disease. Total, 213.[8]

After the surrender, the 11th Infantry with other Regular troops, was sent to Richmond, Va., where it arrived May 3d. It did provost duty in Richmond until the civil government of the city was organized, and at Libby Prison until its use was discontinued. During the summer and fall of 1865 the twenty-four companies of the regiment were organized. In the summer of 1866, the regiment suffered a great mortality from cholera.[10]


Major John M. Goodhue - 11 U.S. Regular Army - CDV

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A nice full standing image of Major John Milton Goodhue.  Goodhue is a Captain in this photo and he is holding his kepi which has an "11" in the infantry horn.  Goodhue was commisioned captain in the 11th US Infantry in May 1861.  He was promoted to major by brevet on March 13, 1865.  The Major lived in Worcester, Massachusetts.  He was wounded at Gettysburg and had his finger amputated.  I have included the Gettysburg after action report stating this.
 
Gettysburg after battle report:

  Report of Maj. De Lancey Floyd-Jones, Eleventh U. S. Infantry.

  Camp near Berlin, Md.,
  July 16, 1863.
  Capt.: In obedience to the circular from brigade headquarters,
  I have the honor to furnish in brief a report of the operations of the
  Eleventh U. S. Infantry at the battle of Gettysburg, on the 2d instant.

  In company with the other battalions of the brigade, we moved
  about 5 p. m. from our resting place, nearly opposite the center of the
  army, to near the Sugar Loaf or Round Top Mountain, a point near
  the left of the line.

  Immediately upon reaching this, we were ordered to advance in
  line of battle, passing from the shelter of a wood across an open field,
  through which ran a heavy morass.  We advanced in good order,
  although exposed to a flank fire from the enemy, and halted immediately
  in front of a piece of woods, where we lay some half hour
  or more.  Our brigade then relieved some troops of the Second
  Corps, for which purpose we advanced into the woods, at the same
  time changing our direction by a wheel to the left.

  After firing a few rounds in the woods, it was discovered that the
  enemy was turning our right flank, and we were ordered to fall back,
  which was done in good order until we reached half way across the
  open field, when we became exposed to a cross-fire of the enemy, the
  effect of which was most deadly upon officers and men.

  Our loss up to this time had been comparatively slight, but in a
  few minutes we lost nearly half of the regiment, and that, too, without
  inflicting the slightest damage upon the enemy.  We finally
  reached the wood, when we were enabled to reform and face the
  enemy.

  Our loss in this engagement was fearful.  Out of 261 enlisted men
  and 25 officers, the regiment lost 106 enlisted men and 10 commissioned
  officers, among the latter some of our best officers.  Capt.
  Thomas O. Barri was wounded early in the retreat, and while being
  kindly assisted to the rear by Lieut. Herbert Kenaston, Eleventh U.
  S. Infantry, both were struck down.  The former lived long enough
  to die in the arms of his companions.  In their loss the regiment
  mourns two gallant officers.  The former had particularly endeared
  himself by his social and amiable qualities.  Second Lieut. Henry
  Rochford, a promising young officer, fell about the same time, mortally
  wounded.

  The following is a list of the officers who still survive their wounds:
  First Lieut. Matthew Elder and Second Lieut. A. J. Barber, legs amputated
  above the knee; Second Lieut. Lemuel Pettee, leg shattered
  above the ankle; Second Lieut. O. H. Nealy, wounded in neck; Capt.
  J. M. Goodhue, finger amputated; Capt. W. G. Edgerton, wounded
  by spent ball (for duty), and Second Lieut. A. A. Harbach, struck in
  thigh, not seriously.

  Where all did so well it is difficult to particularize.  I therefore
  give the names of those officers who participated, in addition to those
  already enumerated: Capts. George Gibson, C. S. Russell, and Caleb
  R. Layton; First Lieuts. E. A. Ellsworth, G. E. Head, I. B. Wright,
  James P. Pratt, Joseph M. Ritner, and F. A. Field, battalion adjutant,
  and Second Lieuts. E. S. Huntington, R. Robins, J. McIntosh,
  Wright Staples, and David Hazzard.  Capt. Gibson joined us
  from detached service in time to take part.

  Respectfully,

  De L. FLOYD-JONES,
  Maj. Eleventh U. S. Infantry, Comdg. Regt.

  Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen.,
  Second Brigade, Second Division, Fifth Corps.

Source:  Official Records: Series I. Vol. 27. Part I. Reports. Serial No. 43
Civil War

The fourth[1][2] 11th Infantry was organized on May 4, 1861 by direction of the President.[8] On May 14, 1861, President Abraham Lincoln issued an executive order, directing an increase of the regimental organizations of the Regular Army. The 11th Infantry was the first, numerically, of the nine infantry regiments, of three battalions of eight companies each, were of the increase authorized. In G. O. No. 33, A. G. O., series of 1861, in contrast to the original ten regular regiments of infantry, which were organized on the traditional ten-company line. The 11th Infantry was organized at Fort Independence, Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, as regimental headquarters, and which remained the 11th's headquarters during the War.[9] Erasmus D. Keyes was served as colonel of the 11th U.S. Infantry from 14 May 1861 to 6 May 1864.[1] William S. Ketchum served as colonel of the 11th U.S. Infantry 6 May 1864 to 15 March 1869.[1]

After six companies had been organized and assigned to the 1st Battalion, 11th Infantry Regiment, it was ordered to Perryville, Maryland, October 10, 1861, and duty there until March 1862. Ordered to Washington, D.C. Attached to Sykes' Regular Infantry, Reserve Brigade, Army Potomac, to May 1862. The 11th then campaigned September 1863 to November 1864 as part of the 5th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac and 8th Army Corps, Middle Department, to January 1865.[8]

The 11th took part in the following: Peninsula Campaign, Siege of Yorktown, Battle of Mechanicsville, Gaines' Mill, Turkey Bridge June 30, Battle of Malvern Hill Malvern Hill, At Harrison's Landing until August 16. Movement to Fortress Monroe, thence to Centerville August 16–28. Pope's Northern Virginia Campaign, Battle of Groveton August 29, Second Battle of Bull Run, Maryland Campaign, Battle of Antietam, Shepherdstown Ford September 19–20, Battle of Fredericksburg, "Mud March", Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6, Battle of Chancellorsville, Gettysburg Campaign, Battle of Gettysburg, Pursuit of Lee July 5–24. On special duty at New York August 21-September 14. Rejoined army, Bristoe Campaign, Second Battle of Rappahannock Station, Mine Run Campaign, Rapidan Campaign, Battle of the Wilderness, Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, North Anna River, Pamunkey May 26–28, Battle of Totopotomoy Creek, Battle of Cold Harbor, Bethesda Church June 1–3, Second Battle of Petersburg, Siege of Petersburg, Mine Explosion, Petersburg, Weldon Railroad, Poplar Springs Church, Peeble's Farm, Boydton Plank Road, Hatcher's Run.[8]

Moved to Fort Hamilton, New York Harbor, November 2, thence to Baltimore, Maryland., November 18, and to Annapolis, Maryland., December 5. Duty at Camp Parole, Annapolis, Md., until January 26, 1865. Ordered to City Point, Virginia., January 26, and camp near Gen. Grant's Headquarters until March 8. Provost duty at Headquarters, Army Potomac, until May, and at Richmond. Va., until October, 1865.[8]

The regiment lost during the Civil War 8 Officers and 117 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Officers and 86 Enlisted men by disease. Total, 213.[8]

After the surrender, the 11th Infantry with other Regular troops, was sent to Richmond, Va., where it arrived May 3d. It did provost duty in Richmond until the civil government of the city was organized, and at Libby Prison until its use was discontinued. During the summer and fall of 1865 the twenty-four companies of the regiment were organized. In the summer of 1866, the regiment suffered a great mortality from cholera.[10]


Mississippi Veteran wearing a Forrest Celluloid Badge Photograph

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An outstanding veteran photo of a veteran from Camp no. 1099, Tallahatchie County, Charleston, Mississippi.  The veteran is wearing a ladder badge, a camp ribbon from Camp no. 1099, and a General Nathan Bedford Forrest celluloid scroll badge.  He is also wearing his UCV uniform and holding his cane.  The photograph has a photographer mark of "Bell - Memphis".  Also on the back are four stickers from the "C.W. Gillan Drug Store, Leland, Mississippi.  The actual photograph is approximately 5 5/8 inches by 3 7/8 inches.  The card it is attched to is approximately 7 3/8 inches by 5 5/8 inches.


General A.P. Hill - KIA - CDV

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After graduating in 1847 from West Point, Hill fought in Mexico and against the Seminoles.  He resigned U.S. service in May 1861 and Entered Confederate service as Colonel of the 13th Virginia Infantry.  He was appointed brigadier general in February 1862 and major general in May 1862.  Hill was promoted lieuteneat general in May 1863.  He was killed April 2, 1865 at Petersburg.  The image has been rounded at the top and has an Anthony backmark.
 

Ambrose Powell Hill
(1825-1865)

Known for his red battle shirt and his hard-hitting attacks at the head of the famed Light Division, Ambrose P. Hill proved to be an example of the Peter principle.
A West Pointer (1847) and veteran artilleryman, he resigned as a first lieutenant on March 1, 1861, and joined the South, where his services included: colonel, 13th Virginia (spring 1861); brigadier general, CSA (February 26, 1862); commanding brigade, Longstreet's Division, Department of Northern Virginia (ca. February 26 - May 27, 1862); major general, CSA (May 26, 1862); commanding Light Division (in lst Corps from June 29 and 2nd Corps from July 27, 1862), Army of Northern Virginia (May 27, 1862 - May 2, 1863); commanding 2nd Corps, Army of Northern Virginia (May 2 and 6-30, 1863); lieutenant general, CSA (May 24, 1863); and commanding 3rd Corps, Army of Northern Virginia (May 30, 1863-May 7, 1864 and May 21, 1864-April 2, 1865).
In reserve at lst Bull Run, he fought at Yorktown and Williamsburg before being given command of a division. On the day he assumed command he directed the fight at Hanover Court House. He then took part in the Seven Days, distinguishing himself. After fighting at Cedar Mountain, 2nd Bull Run, and the capture of Harpers Ferry, he launched powerful counterattacks at the right moment at both Antietam and Fredericksburg. At Chancellorsville he was on Jackson's famed march around the Union right flank. When Jackson was wounded, Hill took command of the corps but was wounded carrying out his chief's orders to "press right in." At the end of the month he was given command of the new 3rd Corps, which he led to Gettysburg where, suffering from a now unidentifiable illness, he put in a lackluster performance.
He was responsible for the disaster at Bristoe Station that fall and, again ill, was virtually circumvented at the Wilderness when Lee in effect took over command of the corps. He relinquished command temporarily after the battle and missed Spotsylvania but returned for the North Anna and Cold Harbor. Taking part in the siege of Petersburg, he was again ill during part of the winter of 186465. With the lines around the city collapsing on April 2, 1865, he was shot and killed in an encounter with a stray group of federal soldiers.
Interestingly enough, both Stonewall Jackson and Lee called for Hill and his division in their dying delirium. It must have been the old Hill they were recalling. (Hassler, William W., A.P. Hill: Lee's Forgotten General and Schenck, Martin, Up Came Hill.- The Story of the Light Division and of its Leaders)
Source: "Who Was Who In The Civil War" by Stewart Sifakis


General Richard S. Ewell CDV

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Ewell graduated from West Point in 1840 and spent his entire ante-bellum career in the Southwest, winning a brevet for gallantry in the Mexican War. He resigned the U.S. Army and was made a brigadier general in the Confederate Army. He lost a leg at the battle of Groveton. He led the 2nd Corps from Gettysburg to Spottsylvania. He ended the war in charge of the Richmond defenses and was captured at Saylor's Creek on April 6, 1865. The backmark is E.&H.T. Anthony, New York.
 
                                                                Richard Stoddert Ewell
                                                                  (1817-1872)

                                                                                 Ewell.jpg (9211 bytes)

As Stonewall Jackson's successor, the gallant Richard S. Ewell proved to be a disappointment and the argument as to why is still around today. Some claim it was the loss of a leg, others that it was the influence of the "Widow Brown" who he married during his recovery. But the fact of the matter is that he was ill-prepared by Jackson for the loose style of command practiced by Lee.
A West Pointer (1840) and veteran of two decades as a company officer, he never quite made the adjustment to commanding large-scale units. He once went out foraging for his division and returned-with a single steer-as if he was still commanding a company of dragoons. Resigning his captaincy on May 7, 1861, to serve the South, he held the following assignments: colonel, Cavalry (1861); brigadier general, CSA June 17, 1861); commanding brigade (in lst Corps after July 20), Army of the Potomac (June 20 - October 22, 1861); commanding brigade, Longstreet's Division, Potomac District, Department of Northern Virginia (October 22, 1861 -February 21, 1862); major general, CSA January 23, 1862); commanding E. K. Smith's (old) Division, same district and department (February 21-May 17, 1862); commanding same division, Valley District, same department (May 17 - June 26, 1862); commanding division, 2nd Corps, Army of Northern Virginia June 26 - August 28, 1862); commanding the corps (May 30, 1863-May 27, 1864); lieutenant general, CSA (May 23, 1863); and commanding Department of Richmond June 13, 1864 April 6, 1865).
After serving at lst Bull Run he commanded a division under Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley Campaign where he complained bitterly about being left in the dark about plans. Jackson's style of leadership was to prove the undoing of Ewell once Jackson was gone. Ewell fought through the Seven Days and at Cedar Mountain before being severely wounded and losing a leg at Groveton, in the beginning of the battle of 2nd Bull Run. After a long recovery, he returned to duty in May 1863 and was promoted to command part of Jackson's old corps. At 2nd Winchester he won a stunning victory and for a moment it looked like a second Stonewall had come. However, at Gettysburg he failed to take advantage of the situation on the evening of the first day when given discretionary orders by Lee.
He required exact instructions, unlike his predecessor. After serving through the fall campaigns he fought at the Wilderness where the same problem developed. At Spotsylvania one of his divisions was all but destroyed. After the actions along the North Anna he was forced to temporarily relinquish command due to illness but Lee made it permanent. He was given command in Richmond and was captured at Sayler's Creek on April 6, 1865, during the retreat to Appomattox. After his release from Fort Warren in July "Old Baldy" retired to a farm near Spring Hill, Tennessee, where he died on January 25, 1872. He is buried in the Old City Cemetery, Nashville, Tennessee. (Hamlin, Percy Gatling, "Old Bald Head")
Source: "Who Was Who In The Civil War" by Stewart Sifakis

and was captured at Saylor's Creek on April 6, 1865. The backmark is E.&H.T. Anthony, New York.

General Jubal Early CDV

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A nice bust image of General Jubal A. Early.  A 1837 graduate of West Point, he fought in the Mexican War as a major of the Virginia volunteers.  He entered Confederate service as a Colonel of the 24th Virginia Infantry.  He was promoted to brigadier general after 1st Manassas, and major general in 1863.  He became a lieutenant general in 1864.   He fought most of his Confederate career in the Army of Northern Virginia.  In 1864 he fought in the valley and put pressure on Washington, DC.  The image has an "E. &H.T. Anthony" backmark.  The image has been trimmed on the lower part of the CDV.
 
Jubal Early was born in Franklin County, Virginia on November 3, 1816,the third child of ten. When he was sixteen his mother died and the following year he received an appointment as a cadet to West Point. In 1837, he graduated 18th out of a class of 50. After serving in the army in the Seminole Wars in Florida, Early returned to Virginia where he studied law. After becoming a lawyer in 1840, he served in the Virginia Legislature during the 1841 and 1842 sessions. Though he lost reelection the following year, he received an appointment as prosecuting attorney, which he held until 1851. In 1844, Early mustered back into the army as a major. During the United States' war with Mexico, Early performed garrison duties, including a two month stint as military governor in Monterrey, Mexico. In April 1848, he once again was mustered out of service and returned home to continue his law practice.

Always an irascible officer, Jubal A. Early suffered overwhelming defeats in the Shenandoah Valley and went on after the conflict to wage a literary war with a fellow Confederate corps commander. A West Pointer (1837) from Virginia, Early had served one year in the artillery, and later in the Mexican War as a major of volunteers,before taking up law. Also involved in politics, he served in the legislature.

Although he voted against secession at the convention, he entered the military where his assignments included: colonel, 24th Virginia (early 1861); commanding 6th Brigade (in 1st Corps from July 20), Army of the Potomac June 20-October 22, 1861); brigadier general, CSA July 21, 1861);commanding brigade, Van Dorn's-D.H. Hill's Division (in Potomac District until March), Department of Northern Virginia (October 22, 1861-May 5, 1862); commanding Eizey's Brigade, Ewell's Division, 2nd Corps, Army of Northern Virginia Uuly 1-September 17, 1862); commanding the division (September 17, 1862-November 1863; ca. December 4-15, 1863; February-May 7; and May 21-27, 1864); major general, CSA (April 2 3 to rank from January 17, 1863); commanding the corps (November-ca. December 4, 1863 and May 27-June 13, 1864); commanding Valley District, Department of Northern Virginia (December 15, 1863 February 1864 and June 13, 1864-March 29, 1865); commanding 3rd Corps, Army of Northern Virginia (May 7-21, 1864); and lieutenant general, CSA (May 31, 1864).

Leading a brigade at 1st Bull Run and Williamsburg, he was wounded at the latter. Returning to duty, he was given another command on the day of Malvern Hill. At Cedar Mountain and 2nd Bull Run he directed this unit and continued until he succeeded to division level at Antietam. He went on to Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg and commanded the corps in the Mine Run operations. Detached, he commanded in the Shenandoah during the winter of 1863-64. After the Battle of the Wilderness he took over temporary control of Hill's Corps during the operations at Spotsylvania. He directed his division at the North Anna and took over Ewell's Corps before Cold Harbor.

A couple of weeks later this command was sent back to the Valley and Early invaded Maryland, fighting Jubal Earlyat Monocacy and on the outskirts of Washington. Falling back to Virginia, he dispatched part off his cavalry to burn Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, in retaliation for Union devastation. In September and October he was defeated in a series of disasters at the hands of Sheridan. The reverses at 3rd Winchester, Fisher's Hill, and Cedar Creek ended his power in the Valley and the old 2nd Corps and was recalled to Lee in December.

However, Early remained with a small force that was destroyed at Waynesborough the following March. Lee then removed him, explaining that he was forced to by public reaction and the fact that he could not defend his subordinate without revealing how weak the Confederacy was. Early fled to Mexico but soon returned to practice law. He was connected with the Louisiana Lottery and was president of the Southern Historical Society. Becoming a defender of Lee, he feuded with Republican convert James Longstreet until his death.

General John C. Bowen CDV

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A nice CDV of General John S. Bowen. Bowen was born in Savannah, Georgia and graduated from West Point. Before the war he was an architect in St. Louis, Missouri. He was appointed colonel of the 1st Missouri Infantry. He was promoted to brigadier general on March 14, 1862 and major general May 25, 1863. He was wounded at Shiloh and died after the surrender of Vicksburg on July 13, 1863. The backmark on this CDV is "Published by E. & H.T. Anthony, 501 Broadway, New York, from Photographic Negative in BRADY'S National Portrait Gallery". A period ink identification is on the back of the CDV.
 
Major-General John S. Bowen was born in Georgia in 1829. He was appointed to the United States military academy in 1848 and on graduation was promoted to brevet second-lieutenant, July 1, 1853. Being assigned to the Mounted Rifles, he served at the Carlisle cavalry school, and on the frontier, with promotion to second lieutenant on July 20, 1854. He resigned his commission on the 1st of May, 1856, and became an architect in Savannah, GA, continuing to gratify his military tastes as lieutenant-colonel of Georgia militia. He removed to St. Louis, Mo., in 1857, where he also followed the business of an architect. From 1859 to 1861 he was captain in the Missouri militia. He was adjutant to General Frost during his expedition to the Kansas border in search of Montgomery, a prominent character in the Kansas troubles. When the civil war began he commanded the Second regiment of Frost's brigade. He was acting chief-of-staff to Frost when Camp Jackson was captured by General Lyon. Going to Memphis, Tenn., and into the southeastern part of Missouri, he raised the First Missouri regiment of infantry, of which he was commissioned colonel on June 11, 1861. He was assigned to the army of General Polk at Columbus, Ky., and acted as brigade commander under that officer's command. When in the spring of 1862 Albert Sidney Johnston and Beauregard were concentrating their armies for an attack upon Grant, Bowen, who on March 14h had received his commission as brigadier-general, was assigned to the division of John C. Breckinridge. In the first day's battle at Shiloh he was wounded. General Beauregard, in his official report of the battle thus speaks: "Brig.Gens. B. R. Johnson and Bowen, most meritorious officers, were also severely wounded in the first combat, but it is hoped will soon be able to return to duty with their brigades." When in 1863 Grant crossed the Mississippi and landed at Bruinsburg, General Bowen, though fearfully outnumbered, threw himself in his path and with the utmost courage and determination, resisted his advance. After a patriotic sacrifice he was forced back upon the main army under Pemberton. On the 25th of May he was rewarded for his brave work at Port Gibson by the commission of major-general in the army of the Confederate States. He fought with distinction in the other battles outside of Vicksburg, and in all the fighting and suffering of the long siege he and his men had their full share. At the fall of the city he was paroled, and went to Raymond, Miss., where he died from sickness contracted during the siege, July 16, 1863.

General John C. Pemberton CDV

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A nice image of General John C. Pemberton, the defender of Vicksburg.  Pemberton was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1814 and graduated from West Point in 1837.  In 1848 he married Martha Thompson of Norfolk, Virginia.  In 1861 he resigned the US Regular Army, and was commisioned into the Confederate Army.  He rose quickly in the ranks and eneded up a Lieutenant General in October 1862.  He was given command of the Department of Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana, an area which embraced the all important stronghold of Vicksburg, Mississippi.  He surrenedered Vicksburg to General U.S. Grant on July 4, 1863.  He resigned his Lieutenant General commision and served the rest of the war as a Colonel of artillery. 
 
The image does not have a backmark.  Written in pencil on the back of the image is "Lieut Genl John C. Pemeberton - Virginia - CSA". 

John Clifford Pemberton
(1814-1881)


Born August 10, 1814, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, John Clifford Pemberton's marriage to a Virginia woman influenced him to fight for the South. By wars end, he had become one of the Confederacy's most controversial generals.
An 1837 graduate of the U.S. Military Academy, Pemberton saw action in the Second Seminole War and was decorated for bravery in the Mexican War. In peacetime, he proved to he an effective administrative officer. Though his defenders would later claim that Pemberton frequently exhibited antebellum pro-Southern sentiments, there is much evidence to the contrary When war broke out in 1861, he agonized for weeks before coming to Virginia to fight for his wife's native land.
Pemberton's first significant duty came in March 1862, when he was promoted to major general and took command of the Department of South Carolina and Georgia. Always adept at military politics, he had moved rapidly upward in rank despite a lack of accomplishments.
The new commander soon was embroiled in controversy Many South Carolinians feared that the Northern-born general was not dedicated to an all-out defense of the department. Pemberton added to their fears by declaring that, if he had to make a choice, he would abandon the area rather than risk losing his outnumbered army When state officials complained to Robert B. Lee, Pemberton's predecessor and now adviser to Confederate President Jefferson Davis, Lee told Pemberton that he must defend the department at all cost. Pemberton was eventually relieved from command, but he had learned a fateful lesson from Lee.
Despite Pemberton's preference for administrative duties and his problems in South Carolina, Davis promoted him to lieutenant general and gave him arguably the most difficult command in the Confederacy Pemberton was to defend Vicksburg, a Mississippi city standing on high bluffs above the Mississippi River. Its defenses were the last major river obstacle to Union shipping.
Taking command of the Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana on October 14, 1862, Pemberton immediately set to work solving supply problems and improving troop morale. For several months he enjoyed remarkable success, defeating attempts by Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant to take Vicksburg in the winter of 1862--1863.
In the spring, however, Grant confused Pemberton with a series of diversions and crossed the Mississippi below Vicksburg practically unnoticed. Grant was free to maneuver because Pemberton had remembered Lees admonishment and had fought to hold Vicksburg at all cost. Jefferson Davis reinforced Pemberton's thinking with an order not to give up the river city "for a single day" Now that Grant had successfully crossed the Mississippi, Pemberton determined to stay close to Vicksburg. Davis complicated matters by sending Gen. Joseph E. Johnston to Mississippi to try to reverse declining Confederate fortunes. Johnston ordered Pemberton to unite his forces and attack Grant, if practicable, even if that meant abandoning the defense of Vicksburg.
Torn by conflicting orders, Pemberton marked time while Grant swept inland scoring a series of quick victories at Port Gibson, Raymond, and Jackson. Pemberton finally tried to please both Davis and Johnston. He moved his army east from Edwards Station, all the while maintaining close contact with Vicksburg. A new order from Johnston forced Pemberton to reverse his course and unite with Johnston's forces that had been defeated at Jackson. Before the order could be carried out, Pemberton's army bumped into Grants forces at Champions Hill and suffered a major defeat. Pemberton retreated to the Big Black River where he suffered more heavy losses. Remembering Lees and Davis's orders, Pemberton chose to ignore another order from Vicksburg. He would try to save the city even if that meant risking the loss of his army. He retreated into the city where he and his men endured a forty-seven day siege before surrendering on July 4, 1863. Pemberton became a pariah in the South and was accused by his immediate superior, General Johnston, of causing he Confederate disaster by disobeying orders.
John Pemberton might have made a positive contribution to the Confederate war effort had his talents been properly used. An able administrator, he was uncomfortable in combat. He had demonstrated his weaknesses in South Carolina, yet Davis had sent him to Mississippi anyway. A few months after Vicksburg, Pemberton displayed his loyalty to the Confederate cause by requesting a reduction in rank. He served the cause the remainder of the war as a lieutenant colonel of artillery in Virginia and South Carolina.
After the war he settled on a farm near Warrenton, Virginia, and eventually returned to his native Pennsylvania, where he died July 13, 1881, in the village of Penllyn. He is buried in Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia.
Source: MacMillan Information Now Encyclopedia "The Confederacy." Article by Michael B. Ballard

 

Brevet Brigadier General Joseph A. Potter - 15 U.S. Infantry - CDV

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A hard to find image of Brevet Brigadier General Joseph Adams Potter as a Colonel.  Potter is in a bust view and you can clearly see his eagle on his shoulder strap.  The backmark is "R.S. De Lamater - Photographer - 258 Main St. - 3 doors above Post Office - Hartford, CT.".  A green three cent revenue stamp is also attached to the back of the image.  Image can be confirmed on page 488 of "Brevet Brigadier Generals in Blue" by Roger Hunt.  Roger actually looked at this image and confirmed the image was Potter. 


General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson CDV

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A nice image from life of General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson.  Jackson was Genneral Lee's commander to go to when he needed action or something to happen.  Jackson was wounded at Chancellorville and died ten days later.  There is no backmark on the back of this image.

General Bushrod Johnson - CSA - CDV

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A member of the Class of 1840, United States Military Acadamy at West Point, Bushrod Rust johnson saw service in the Seminole Warin Florida and the war with Mexico.  He resigned the army in 1847 to become a teacher at Western Military Institute at Georgetown, Kentucky and then the Military College of the University of Nashville.  Johnson was active in the militia of both states and entered service to the Confederacy as a colonel of engineers.  He was promoted to brigadier general in January 1862.  He was captured at Fort Donelson but escaped.  Later he was severly wounded at Shiloh.  After his recovery he led his brigade in the Kentucky campaign of 1862, at Murfreesboro and Chickamauga, and in the Knoxville campaign under Longstreet.   He was then transferred East, where he took part in the defense of Petersburg.  He was commisioned major general on May 21, 1864.  He served the rest of the war with the Army of Northern Virginia.  His division was shattered at Sayler's Creek.  He escaped but was on the parole records at Appomattox.  This image is missing the lower left corner.  The backmark is "E. & H.T. Anthony. 501 Broadway, New York, Manufacturers of the best Photographic Albumns.".


General Arnold Elzey - 1st Maryland Infantry - CDV

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A nice waist up photograph of General Arnold Elzey.  Elzey graduated from West Point in 1837.  He served in one of the Seminole uprising, won a brevet for gallantry in Mexico and was in command of the United States arsenal in Augusta, Georgia at the outbreak of the war.  He entered Confederate service as Colonel of the 1st Maryland Infantry.  He was promoted to brigadier general for his services at the battle of First Manassas.  He also distinquished himself in the Shenandoah campaign of 1862 and in the beginning of the Seven Day's fighting around Richmond, where he was desperately wounded and incapacitaed for many months.  Upon his partial recovery he was promoted major general on December 4, 1862.  He commanded the Department of Richmond and towards the end of the war he acted as chief of artillery for the Army of the Tennessee for some time.  He did not participate in Hood's Tennessee campaign.  He was paroled at Washington, Georgia on May 9, 1865.  The backmark on this image is "E. & H.T. Anthony, 501 Broadway, New York, Manufactures of the best Photographic Albums".


General James R. Chalmers - Forrest's Cavalry - CDV

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Here is a nice image of General James R. Chalmers of Forrest's Cavalry.  Chalmers started the Civil War as Colonel of the 9th Mississippi Infantry.  he was promoted to brigadier generral in February 1862 and fought at Shiloh under General Withers.  He led his brigade in the invasion of kentucky under General Bragg and at the battle of Murfreesboro, after which he transferred to cavalry.  He was given a division under General Forrest and fought with him in Northern Mississippi, Kentucky, and Tennessee.  Distinctly an individualist, his relations with Forrest were not always completely harmonious, although his ability and gallantry were unquestioned.  The image has a E. & H.T. Anthony, 501 Broadway, New York" backmark.
 

Early life

Born to Mississippi congressman Joseph Williams Chalmers near Lynchburg, Virginia, Chalmers later moved with his family to Jackson, Tennessee, in 1835 and, three years later, to Holly Springs, Mississippi. He later attended St. Thomas Hall.

Studying law at South Carolina College (now present day University of South Carolina) in Columbia, South Carolina, Chalmers graduated in 1851 and, at the age of 21, attended as a delegate to the Democratic National Convention of 1852, before being admitted to the bar the following year.

Chalmers began practicing law upon his return to Holly Springs and, in 1858, later served as district attorney for the seventh judicial district of Mississippi before participating in the secession convention of Mississippi in January 1861.

Military service

Confederate Cavalry General James Ronald Chalmers

In March 1861, Chalmers enlisted in the Confederate Army as a captain and, despite no prior military experience, was elected Colonel of the 9th Mississippi Infantry Regiment the next month.

Stationed at Pensacola, Florida, during the first few months of the war, Chalmers was promoted to brigadier general on February 13, 1862, and later fought under General Withers at the Battle of Shiloh on April 6.

On July 1, 1862, Chalmers' force of nearly 5,000 infantry engaged in battle with Union Col. Philip Sheridan at a forward outpost near Booneville, Mississippi, and, during the subsequent Battle of Booneville, was defeated by the 31-year-old Union officer both by superior weaponry and by repeatedly moving Union troops off military transport trains, deceiving enemy forces into believing the Sheridan's command (only numbering 827 men) to be much larger than their own.

Despite this embarrassing defeat, Chalmers went on to have a successful military career, taking part in the Kentucky Campaign under General Braxton Bragg and as a brigade commander at the Battle of Stones River, where he was wounded at "Hell's Half-Acre".

In 1863, Chalmers was appointed commander of the District of Mississippi and East Louisiana before his transfer to the first division of Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest's cavalry corps the following year. Earning the nickname "Little 'Un" while under Forrest, Chalmers saw action in Confederate military operations in North Mississippi, Kentucky, and West Tennessee, as well service with the Confederate Army of Tennessee during Lt. Gen. John B. Hood's 1864 campaign. He was paroled in Gainesville, Alabama, on May 10, 1865.[1]

Later years

In the years following the war, Chalmers returned to Mississippi where he resumed his law career and, as a prominent Mississippi political figure during Reconstruction, served as a member of the state senate from 1876 to 1877. After Mississippi's readmission into the Union, Chalmers was elected a U.S. Representative for the state for three terms in 1877, 1878, and 1882 respectively. Although failing in three other bids for election, contested by John R. Lynch and Van H. Manning, Chalmers retired from politics and, in 1888, moved to Vicksburg, Mississippi, where he continued his law practice until his death on April 9, 1898. He was buried in Memphis, Tennessee, at Elmwood Cemetery, Evergreen Section, Lot 448.

 
J. R. CHALMERS, son of the Hon. Judge Joseph W. Chalmers (who was in the United States Senate under Polk’s administration), was born in Halifax County, Virginia, on the 11th of January, 1831. He is the oldest and only survivor of seven children—four sons and three daughters. In 1834 or 1835 he removed with his father to Jackson, Tennessee, and thence to Holly Springs, Marshall County, Mississippi, in 1839, where he was sent to school and prepared for college, which he entered at Columbia, South Carolina, in September, 1848, where he graduated in December, 1851, taking the second honor in a class of about fifteen. Returning to Holly Springs, he at once entered upon the study of law in the office of Barton & Chalmers, the firm being composed of his father and the great and gifted Roger Barton. In 1852 he was a delegate to the Democratic Convention which nominated Franklin Pierce for President. The next year he began to practice law at Holly Springs, and in 1857 he was elected District Attorney of the Seventh Judicial District, over several worthy and popular competitors. He was soon recognized as one of the ablest prosecuting attorneys in the State, and greatly increased and strengthened his popularity. He was a delegate from DeSoto County to the Mississippi State Convention, which passed the ordinance of secession, in January, 1861, and chairman of the military committee in that body.

The subject of this sketch was elected Colonel of the Ninth Mississippi Regiment of infantry, which was the first that entered the Confederate service from that State. His first engagement was a successful attack upon Fort Pickens, on Santa Rosa Island, south of Pensacola, Florida.

Chalmers was appointed Brigadier-General on the 13th of February, 1862, and was in command of the forces that drove Sherman and his gunboats back from Eastport, Mississippi, on March 12th, and thus saved Bear Creek bridge from destruction, and the Memphis and Charleston Railroad from falling into the hands of the enemy. At the battle of Shiloh he commanded the extreme right brigade, and made the last charge on Sunday that was made by the Confederates on that eventful day. Balls passed through his clothing, and his horse was shot from under him on Monday. When the Confederate army fell back to Tupelo, Bragg assigned Chalmers to a cavalry command for a short time, but having been recalled to take charge of his infantry brigade, he went with Bragg on his Kentucky campaign. The former made an unsuccessful attack upon Mumfordsville, and was complimented by the latter for what he did. At the battle of Murfreesboro General Chalmers was severely wounded, and before he had fully recovered from the effect of his wound he was assigned by Bragg to the command of the cavalry in Northwest Mississippi, at the special request of the Governor of that State—Pettus.

General Chalmers now went to work in his new field and organized the “squads” and companies into regiments, which afterward, under his command, formed a prominent part in that terrible column that enabled Forrest to perform his wondrous feats and made his name immortal, causing him to go down the ages as the “Wizard of the Saddle.” General Chalmers commanded the first division of Forrest’s Cavalry from January, 1864, to the close of the war, as fully set forth in the preceding pages of this work, to which I refer the reader for the balance of the military career of this gallant and noble officer. He accepted the terms of surrender in good faith, and returned to his home in North Mississippi, where he again began the practice of his profession—the law.

In 1872 he was on the electoral ticket in Mississippi for Horace Greeley; in 1872 he was elected to the State Senate; in 1876 he was elected to Congress, from what is known as the “Shoe-string District,” and again in 1878, without opposition. In 1880 he was returned as elected, but was unseated in a contest by John R. Lynch, the Republican candidate. General Chalmers then removed from Vicksburg to Sardis, Mississippi, and in 1882 became an independent Democratic candidate for Congress against V. H. Manning, the regular Democratic nominee, and after a close, exciting canvass was elected, but by some sort of manipulation or legerdemain at Jackson by the Governor and Secretary of State, he was refused his certificate of election, though he was finally seated by a Democratic House, after a most exciting contest between Manning and himself. In 1884 and 1886 he was again a candidate against the Hon. J. B. Morgan, the regular Democratic nominee, and while there is but little doubt in the minds of his friends that he was elected both times, yet the certificate of election was given to his opponent.

As a speaker, General Chalmers is fluent, bold, pointed, and fearless. In his style he draws occasionally upon a cultivated and exuberant fancy, but indulges more frequently in pointed and racy anecdote. As a friend, he is sincere, true, and devoted; as an enemy, fearless and inflexible; but at all times just and generous, as ready to atone for a wrong, when he is convinced that he has committed one, as he is, upon the other hand, steadfast and immovable when satisfied that he is right.

I take the following from a letter recently received from Colonel C. R. Barteau:

“I meet General Chalmers frequently, and he inquires about your book. As I know him better, I love and appreciate the man. His talent is of a high order, his character spotless, and his moral courage beyond all question.”

The general is now (1887) engaged in the practice of law in the city of Memphis, Tennessee, in connection with his former comrade-in-arms and almost lifetime friend, Colonel Thomas W. Harris. They are recognized as among the leaders and most efficient of the Southern bar.


J. R. CHALMERS, son of the Hon. Judge Joseph W. Chalmers (who was in the United States Senate under Polk’s administration), was born in Halifax County, Virginia, on the 11th of January, 1831. He is the oldest and only survivor of seven children—four sons and three daughters. In 1834 or 1835 he removed with his father to Jackson, Tennessee, and thence to Holly Springs, Marshall County, Mississippi, in 1839, where he was sent to school and prepared for college, which he entered at Columbia, South Carolina, in September, 1848, where he graduated in December, 1851, taking the second honor in a class of about fifteen. Returning to Holly Springs, he at once entered upon the study of law in the office of Barton & Chalmers, the firm being composed of his father and the great and gifted Roger Barton. In 1852 he was a delegate to the Democratic Convention which nominated Franklin Pierce for President. The next year he began to practice law at Holly Springs, and in 1857 he was elected District Attorney of the Seventh Judicial District, over several worthy and popular competitors. He was soon recognized as one of the ablest prosecuting attorneys in the State, and greatly increased and strengthened his popularity. He was a delegate from DeSoto County to the Mississippi State Convention, which passed the ordinance of secession, in January, 1861, and chairman of the military committee in that body.

The subject of this sketch was elected Colonel of the Ninth Mississippi Regiment of infantry, which was the first that entered the Confederate service from that State. His first engagement was a successful attack upon Fort Pickens, on Santa Rosa Island, south of Pensacola, Florida.

Chalmers was appointed Brigadier-General on the 13th of February, 1862, and was in command of the forces that drove Sherman and his gunboats back from Eastport, Mississippi, on March 12th, and thus saved Bear Creek bridge from destruction, and the Memphis and Charleston Railroad from falling into the hands of the enemy. At the battle of Shiloh he commanded the extreme right brigade, and made the last charge on Sunday that was made by the Confederates on that eventful day. Balls passed through his clothing, and his horse was shot from under him on Monday. When the Confederate army fell back to Tupelo, Bragg assigned Chalmers to a cavalry command for a short time, but having been recalled to take charge of his infantry brigade, he went with Bragg on his Kentucky campaign. The former made an unsuccessful attack upon Mumfordsville, and was complimented by the latter for what he did. At the battle of Murfreesboro General Chalmers was severely wounded, and before he had fully recovered from the effect of his wound he was assigned by Bragg to the command of the cavalry in Northwest Mississippi, at the special request of the Governor of that State—Pettus.

General Chalmers now went to work in his new field and organized the “squads” and companies into regiments, which afterward, under his command, formed a prominent part in that terrible column that enabled Forrest to perform his wondrous feats and made his name immortal, causing him to go down the ages as the “Wizard of the Saddle.” General Chalmers commanded the first division of Forrest’s Cavalry from January, 1864, to the close of the war, as fully set forth in the preceding pages of this work, to which I refer the reader for the balance of the military career of this gallant and noble officer. He accepted the terms of surrender in good faith, and returned to his home in North Mississippi, where he again began the practice of his profession—the law.

In 1872 he was on the electoral ticket in Mississippi for Horace Greeley; in 1872 he was elected to the State Senate; in 1876 he was elected to Congress, from what is known as the “Shoe-string District,” and again in 1878, without opposition. In 1880 he was returned as elected, but was unseated in a contest by John R. Lynch, the Republican candidate. General Chalmers then removed from Vicksburg to Sardis, Mississippi, and in 1882 became an independent Democratic candidate for Congress against V. H. Manning, the regular Democratic nominee, and after a close, exciting canvass was elected, but by some sort of manipulation or legerdemain at Jackson by the Governor and Secretary of State, he was refused his certificate of election, though he was finally seated by a Democratic House, after a most exciting contest between Manning and himself. In 1884 and 1886 he was again a candidate against the Hon. J. B. Morgan, the regular Democratic nominee, and while there is but little doubt in the minds of his friends that he was elected both times, yet the certificate of election was given to his opponent.

As a speaker, General Chalmers is fluent, bold, pointed, and fearless. In his style he draws occasionally upon a cultivated and exuberant fancy, but indulges more frequently in pointed and racy anecdote. As a friend, he is sincere, true, and devoted; as an enemy, fearless and inflexible; but at all times just and generous, as ready to atone for a wrong, when he is convinced that he has committed one, as he is, upon the other hand, steadfast and immovable when satisfied that he is right.

I take the following from a letter recently received from Colonel C. R. Barteau:

“I meet General Chalmers frequently, and he inquires about your book. As I know him better, I love and appreciate the man. His talent is of a high order, his character spotless, and his moral courage beyond all question.”

The general is now (1887) engaged in the practice of law in the city of Memphis, Tennessee, in connection with his former comrade-in-arms and almost lifetime friend, Colonel Thomas W. Harris. They are recognized as among the leaders and most efficient of the Southern bar.


J. R. CHALMERS, son of the Hon. Judge Joseph W. Chalmers (who was in the United States Senate under Polk’s administration), was born in Halifax County, Virginia, on the 11th of January, 1831. He is the oldest and only survivor of seven children—four sons and three daughters. In 1834 or 1835 he removed with his father to Jackson, Tennessee, and thence to Holly Springs, Marshall County, Mississippi, in 1839, where he was sent to school and prepared for college, which he entered at Columbia, South Carolina, in September, 1848, where he graduated in December, 1851, taking the second honor in a class of about fifteen. Returning to Holly Springs, he at once entered upon the study of law in the office of Barton & Chalmers, the firm being composed of his father and the great and gifted Roger Barton. In 1852 he was a delegate to the Democratic Convention which nominated Franklin Pierce for President. The next year he began to practice law at Holly Springs, and in 1857 he was elected District Attorney of the Seventh Judicial District, over several worthy and popular competitors. He was soon recognized as one of the ablest prosecuting attorneys in the State, and greatly increased and strengthened his popularity. He was a delegate from DeSoto County to the Mississippi State Convention, which passed the ordinance of secession, in January, 1861, and chairman of the military committee in that body.

The subject of this sketch was elected Colonel of the Ninth Mississippi Regiment of infantry, which was the first that entered the Confederate service from that State. His first engagement was a successful attack upon Fort Pickens, on Santa Rosa Island, south of Pensacola, Florida.

Chalmers was appointed Brigadier-General on the 13th of February, 1862, and was in command of the forces that drove Sherman and his gunboats back from Eastport, Mississippi, on March 12th, and thus saved Bear Creek bridge from destruction, and the Memphis and Charleston Railroad from falling into the hands of the enemy. At the battle of Shiloh he commanded the extreme right brigade, and made the last charge on Sunday that was made by the Confederates on that eventful day. Balls passed through his clothing, and his horse was shot from under him on Monday. When the Confederate army fell back to Tupelo, Bragg assigned Chalmers to a cavalry command for a short time, but having been recalled to take charge of his infantry brigade, he went with Bragg on his Kentucky campaign. The former made an unsuccessful attack upon Mumfordsville, and was complimented by the latter for what he did. At the battle of Murfreesboro General Chalmers was severely wounded, and before he had fully recovered from the effect of his wound he was assigned by Bragg to the command of the cavalry in Northwest Mississippi, at the special request of the Governor of that State—Pettus.

General Chalmers now went to work in his new field and organized the “squads” and companies into regiments, which afterward, under his command, formed a prominent part in that terrible column that enabled Forrest to perform his wondrous feats and made his name immortal, causing him to go down the ages as the “Wizard of the Saddle.” General Chalmers commanded the first division of Forrest’s Cavalry from January, 1864, to the close of the war, as fully set forth in the preceding pages of this work, to which I refer the reader for the balance of the military career of this gallant and noble officer. He accepted the terms of surrender in good faith, and returned to his home in North Mississippi, where he again began the practice of his profession—the law.

In 1872 he was on the electoral ticket in Mississippi for Horace Greeley; in 1872 he was elected to the State Senate; in 1876 he was elected to Congress, from what is known as the “Shoe-string District,” and again in 1878, without opposition. In 1880 he was returned as elected, but was unseated in a contest by John R. Lynch, the Republican candidate. General Chalmers then removed from Vicksburg to Sardis, Mississippi, and in 1882 became an independent Democratic candidate for Congress against V. H. Manning, the regular Democratic nominee, and after a close, exciting canvass was elected, but by some sort of manipulation or legerdemain at Jackson by the Governor and Secretary of State, he was refused his certificate of election, though he was finally seated by a Democratic House, after a most exciting contest between Manning and himself. In 1884 and 1886 he was again a candidate against the Hon. J. B. Morgan, the regular Democratic nominee, and while there is but little doubt in the minds of his friends that he was elected both times, yet the certificate of election was given to his opponent.

As a speaker, General Chalmers is fluent, bold, pointed, and fearless. In his style he draws occasionally upon a cultivated and exuberant fancy, but indulges more frequently in pointed and racy anecdote. As a friend, he is sincere, true, and devoted; as an enemy, fearless and inflexible; but at all times just and generous, as ready to atone for a wrong, when he is convinced that he has committed one, as he is, upon the other hand, steadfast and immovable when satisfied that he is right.

I take the following from a letter recently received from Colonel C. R. Barteau:

“I meet General Chalmers frequently, and he inquires about your book. As I know him better, I love and appreciate the man. His talent is of a high order, his character spotless, and his moral courage beyond all question.”

The general is now (1887) engaged in the practice of law in the city of Memphis, Tennessee, in connection with his former comrade-in-arms and almost lifetime friend, Colonel Thomas W. Harris. They are recognized as among the leaders and most efficient of the Southern bar.



Lt. Thomas J. Stotsbery - 22 Ohio Infantry & 53 USCT - CDV

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A rakish image of Lt. Thomas J. Stotsbery of Company A of the 22nd Ohio Infantry and Company F of the 53 United States Colored Troops.  Please note that this guys name is spelled Stateberry, Stotsbery, and Stotesberry in the different references I have found him.  I am using the Historical Data Systems spelling for his 53rd USCT record.  Stotsbery enlisted as a private in Compant A of the 22nd Ohio Infnatry in April 1861.  He mustered out in August 1861.  He was commisioned 2nd Lieutenant in Company F of the 53rd USCT in August 1863.  He resigned on July 18, 1864 as a 1st Lieutenant.  This guy looks like a bummer if I have ever seen one!  The image is pencil signed on the front of the carte 'Yours Truly - Thos. J. Stotesbery".  There is no backmark.
 
22nd Ohio Regiment Infantry (3 Months). Organized at Camp Jackson, Columbus, Ohio, April and May, 1861. Moved to Parkersburg, W. Va., May 30, thence to Burning Springs and Elizabethtown, and to Three Forks. Attached to Cox's Brigade, District of the Kanawha, W. Va. Operations against guerrillas in Gilmer, Calhoun and Braxton Counties and railroad guard duty till August. Mustered out August 19, 1861.
 

53rd Regiment Infantry

Organized March 11, 1864, from 3rd Mississippi Infantry (African Descent). Attached to 1st Brigade, 1st Division, United States Colored Troops, District of Vicksburg, Miss., to October, 1864. 1st Brigade, 4th Division, 16th Corps, to November, 1864. Dept. of Arkansas to February, 1865. District of Vicksburg, Miss., and Dept. of Mississippi to March, 1866.

SERVICE.--Post and garrison duty at Haines Bluff, District of Vicksburg, Miss., until October, 1864. Expedition to Grand Gulf March 12-14. Action at Grand Gulf July 16. Moved to St. Charles, Ark., on White River October, 1864, and duty there until February, 1865. Action on White River, near St. Charles, October 22, 1864. Moved to Vicksburg, Miss., February, 1865, and duty there; at Macon, Meridian and other points in the Dept. of Mississippi until March, 1866. Mustered out March 8, 1866.


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