Offered is an
image of General Ambrose Everett Burnside.
This is an image of Burnside as a brigadier general which would be
before March, 1862. The image does not
have a back mark. Written in pencil
under the photograph is “Burnside”.
Ambrose Burnside (1824-1881) was a general in the United States Army during
the American Civil War. He had a mixed record, enjoying substantial success in
Carolina and Tennessee but suffering such severe defeats in two later battles
that gave him a reputation for incompetence. After the war, he became a civil
engineer and politician, rising to be a U.S. senator.
Burnside was born in Liberty, Indiana, into a large family which eventually
included eight siblings. He went to school at Liberty Seminary, but when his
mother died in 1841, he dropped out of school and became a tailor’s apprentice.
Rather than continue in this trade, Burnside used the political connections his
father enjoyed to gain entry to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. Here,
he was a competent but unexceptional student, graduating almost exactly halfway
up his class.
On his graduation, he was sent as a brevet second lieutenant to the 2nd U.S.
Artillery. He was assigned to participate in the Mexican-American War at Vera
Cruz but, by the time his unit arrived, the war had ended and so they were
given garrison duties in Mexico City. On his return to the U.S., Burnside was
placed under the command of Braxton
Bragg – then a captain – on the Western Frontier. In this role, Burnside
suffered a neck wound at the hands of the Apaches in New Mexico.
Out of the Army
In 1852, Burnside was sent to Fort Adams, Rhode Island, but in April of that
year he married to Mary Bishop of Providence, and a year later he resigned his
commission. He set up the Burnside Arms Company, which gained a contract to
supply this gun to the U.S. Army. However, John B. Floyd, the Secretary of War,
was bribed by another manufacturer and the contract was not honored. Burnside’s
factory suffered a severe fire, and combined with the cost of his unsuccessful
attempt to be elected a Congressman, this destroyed him financially.
On the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, Burnside was working as a railroad
treasurer in Illinois, but once hostilities had begun, he went back to Rhode
Island, raising a volunteer infantry regiment in that state; he was quickly
named as its colonel. In that role, he took his men to Washington, D.C., and
before long he had been appointed to command a brigade in northeast Virginia.
He was a commander at the unsuccessful First Battle of Bull Run in July, but he
endured criticism for the piecemeal way in which he had committed his troops.
After this reverse, the regiment Burnside had created was removed from
service, with Burnside himself given a new role as brigadier general of
volunteers. He underwent a period of training with the Army of the Potomac, and
then set sail for North Carolina at the start of 1862. Burnside was more
successful in this capacity, proving victorious at both Roanoke Island and New
Bern. These victories brought him promotion to major general, and then – after
Campaign had failed – he was offered command of the Army of the Potomac by
President Abraham Lincoln.
Army of the Potomac
Burnside, however, rejected the offer on the grounds that he felt he was too
inexperienced for such a role. He again declined command of the Army after the Union‘s second loss at Bull Run
in August. This time, his IX Corps was sent to the Army of the Potomac itself,
with Burnside commanding both his own and I Corps. Under the overall command of
McClellan, Burnside and his men participated in both the Battle of South
Mountain and the bloody Battle of Antietam.
At Antietam, Burnside was told to capture a bridge, but he was slow to react
to events and did not think to look for other suitable crossings across the
river, and this resulted in his forces suffering at the bridge itself. The
slowness of Burnside’s reactions meant that the taking of the bridge was a
protracted affair. Although it was eventually captured, by then it was too late
for Burnside’s men to break out from the containment tactics practiced by Major
General A.P. Hill.
Fredericksburg and Ohio
In early November, Lincoln persuaded Burnside to accept control of the army
in place of McClellan, who had been removed after Antietam. Burnside’s idea to
capture Richmond by circling around Lee via a quick push to Fredericksburg in
Virginia was supported by Lincoln: the plan almost worked, but the late arrival
of pontoon bridges meant that a river crossing was delayed. Instead, Burnside
waited so long that Lee’s men arrived, and he suffered defeat in the Battle of
Fredericksburg. After a first, unsuccessful attempt to resign, he was relieved
of his command in January 1863.
The President, however, wished to retain Burnside and once again placed him
in command of IX Corps, this time in Ohio. Burnside courted controversy in
April after issuing an order making opposing the war a crime. As summer wore
on, Burnside’s troops were closely involved in capturing rebel Confederate
Brigadier General John Hunt Morgan. Later, Burnside’s offensive tactics won
victories at Knoxville, Tennessee and Chickamauga.
Back to the East
After a successful engagement outside Knoxville in November 1863, Burnside
was instrumental in the Union victory at Chattanooga. The early months of 1864
saw his IX Corps taken back east in order to help with the Overland Campaign of
Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant, in which role Burnside at first reported
directly to the general. Burnside’s troops took part in the Battles at
Wilderness and Spotsylvania, but he tended to be overly cautious when
committing his men and, overall, his actions lacked distinction.
The IX Corps later joined the siege at Petersburg, which had reached a
stalemate. Burnside approved a plan by infantrymen of his IX Corps, in which
they would dig beneath the Confederate lines and plant a huge bomb. This, on
exploding, would produce a gap sufficiently wide to allow Union forces to
attack. Burnside had intended to use specialist black troops but he was forced
at short notice to replace them with whites. The Battle of the Crater in August
turned out to be a terrible defeat, and Burnside was stripped of his command.
Burnside was put on leave and was never allowed to command troops again, his
army days ending in April 1865. His legacy is of a man who was personally
popular, both with his soldiers and with the common people, but an excessively
promoted leader – a view shared by Burnside himself – who was often both
incompetent and indecisive. When he returned to civilian life, he spent time in
railroad management, then later enjoyed a distinguished political career as
senator and governor. The distinctive style of facial hair known as sideburns
is named in Burnside’s honor.
Offered is a CDV of General Quincy Adams Gillmore. The image is a three quarter standing
photograph. He is wearing a sword and
holding a slouch hat. The back mark is “E. & H.T. Anthony, 301
Broadway, New York. From Photographic Negative in Brady’s National Portrait
was a Civil War military leader from Ohio. He was born on February 28, 1825, at
Black River, Ohio. His father was a staunch supporter of President John Quincy
Adams, and named his son Quincy Adams Gillmore. He spent his youth working on his
father's farm and attended school only during the winter months. By the age of
seventeen, Gillmore was teaching school. He began to study medicine in his free
time until he received an appointment to the United States Military Academy at
West Point in 1845. He ranked first in his class when he graduated in 1849.
In 1849, Gillmore
joined the Corps of Engineers and helped plan the fortifications of Hampton
Roads, Virginia. In 1852, he returned to West Point as an instructor of
practical military engineering. At West Point, Gillmore conducted research on
the effects of cannon projectiles on masonry forts. His research assisted him
during the American Civil War. In 1856, he was transferred to New York City,
where he was the army's chief engineer in the region. He held this position
until the beginning of the Civil War.
In August 1861,
Gillmore sought a battlefield position. Salmon Chase recommended that Ohio
Governor William Dennison offer Gillmore command of one of Ohio's volunteer
infantry regiments. Dennison agreed, but Gillmore refused the offer. Later that
year, Gillmore was assigned to accompany General Thomas W. Sherman's expedition
against the coastal regions of South Carolina. Gillmore was responsible for
constructing defenses for the territory that Union forces seized. Sherman then
sailed for Savannah, which was guarded by Fort Pulaski. Sherman asked Gillmore
to develop a plan to capture the fort. Gillmore proposed bombarding Fort
Pulaski from a nearby island - roughly three thousand yards away. Current
military practice contended that only a bombardment from less than one thousand
yards could succeed. After Gillmore opened his bombardment of Fort Pulaski on
April 9, 1862, the Confederates inside surrendered in less than three days.
campaign against Savannah, Gillmore contracted malaria and took a leave of
absence. Upon recovering his health, Gillmore was assigned to help the governor
of New York recruit and train new volunteers for the Union army. In September
1862, Gillmore went to Cincinnati, Ohio, and took command of forces sent to
drive Confederate soldiers under General Kirby Smith from Kentucky. Gillmore's
time in Kentucky was relatively quiet. He remained in the area until early
1863, when he was assigned to plan and carry out an attack on Fort Sumter and
Charleston, South Carolina. Gillmore succeeded in capturing or destroying
numerous fortifications defending Charleston during July, August, and September
1863. Northern soldiers failed to capture the city but they did succeed in creating
a virtual blockade of the water approaches to the city. For his successes in
this campaign, Gillmore was promoted to major general.
In 1864, Gillmore
was transferred to the command of General Benjamin Butler at Fortress Monroe,
Virginia. Gillmore and Butler had a falling out, and General Ulysses S. Grant
intervened, transferring Gillmore to Washington, DC. At Washington, Gillmore
played a vital role in stopping Confederate General Jubal Early's advance on
that city. He finished the war overseeing Northern troops in Georgia and South
Carolina. Gillmore remained in the military following the war. He died on April
7, 1888, in New York.
Offered is an image of General Peter Joseph Osterhaus. The image is a bust shot of the General. There is no back mark on the card. The card has been trimmed on both the top and
the bottom of the card. The actual
photograph has not been cut or trimmed.
General Peter J. Osterhaus
One of numerous Europeans to flee the continent in
the aftermath of the 1848 uprisings and end up in the Union army,
Peter J. Osterhaus was one of the best of the volunteer generals to serve in
the Western Campaign and the most distinguished of the Union's many German
Born January 4, 1823 in Koblenz, Westphalia into an upper class family,
he attended university where he received a liberal education and developed a
strong attachment for democratic government. After leaving the university
he enlisted in the Prussian Army and served one year in the elite
Jaeger rifles. His father, a prominent architect arranged for him to
establish a mercantile firm in Mannheim after completing his initial military
service, but he continued in the military reserves eventually earning an
officers commission. Although he had married Mathilda Born in 1847,
he joined the revolutionary forces opposing Prussian imperialism during the
uprising of 1848. Appointed commander of revolutionary troops at
Mannheim, he was not engaged in the fighting that raged in the southern part of
Germany. After the conflict ended in defeat for the democratic forces, he
fled into France and ultimately immigrated to the United States with a group of
like minded ex-revolutionaries. He settled in Bellville, Illinois, and there on
May 1, 1850 opened a general store at 150 Main Street. His general store
proving to be a commercial success, he sold it and used the proceeds to
purchase property in nearby Lebanon where he was later appointed
Postmaster. Active in politics, he made the acquaintance of Abraham
Lincoln. He supported Fremont who ran for President in 1856 on the first
Republican ticket. When Buchannan defeated Fremont, he lost his position as
Postmaster on March 11, 1857, and soon thereafter his business failed as part
of the financial depression gripping the West.
In 1860, he moved his family which now consisted of a wife and two
children to St. Louis and accepted a position as a clerk in a local hardware
store. His military background and political involvement with the
pro-union, anti-slavery element in St. Louis led to his selection to train Dr.
Adam Hammer's medical students in the military arts following the organization
of the Confederacy. He later enlisted in the 2nd Missouri at the outbreak
of hostilities and was elected Captain of Company B on April 24, 1861. Captain
Osterhaus on May 10th led his company during the capture of the pro
southern Missouri State Militia at Camp Jackson, St. Louis. In June, as
part of Colonel Boernstein's 2nd Missouri, he participated in Lyon's movement
on Jefferson City and later in action at Boonville where he was appointed
acting battalion commander of Companies A and B which consisted of German
American troops from Bellville. He was promoted to the rank of Major in June
and led his battalion to Springfield, Missouri as part of General Lyon's
Army. Major Osterhaus first distinguished himself in battle in August at
Wilson's Creek where his coolness under fire impressed both his men and
superior officers. After the death of General Lyon, the Union forces
returned to St. Louis to reorganize for the long campaign ahead.
On the recommendation of General Fremont, he was appointed commanding
officer of the newly formed 12th Missouri Regiment, one of several composed of
German Americans from St. Louis and surrounding communities. In September
1861 he moved his regiment to Jefferson City where it joined General
Fremont who was preparing his Army of the West for a return to
rebel held southwest Missouri. Osterhaus was promptly assigned to Colonel
Franz Sigel's 3rd Division. Colonel Sigel, like Osterhaus had participated in
the 1848 Revolution. Sigel recognized his leadership ability and quickly
elevated him to commander of the 2nd Brigade which was made up of the
German American 3rd, 12th, 17th Missouri and the 44th Illinois regiments. When
Sigel returned to St. Louis on sick leave, he was appointed acting division
commander. Before General Fremont could engage the rebels, he was
relieved by General Curtis who led his forces into Arkansas where they
met the rebel army at Pea Ridge. During the three days of fighting
Osterhaus unerringly led his division in three separate actions that
helped turn the battle in favor of the Union forces. After several months
delay , he was promoted to the rank of brigadier general on June 9, 1862.
For the remainder of the year, he took part in General Curtis' operations in
Arkansas. While on garrison duty at Helena was attached to Major General
McClernand's XIII Corps and given command of the 9th Division. This was
the only time he would not command the German American regiments from St.
Louis. During this time the German Brigade comprised of the 3rd, 12th and
17th Missouri was under the command of General Frederick Steele.
Osterhaus first operation while commanding the 9th Division was with the
XIII and XV Corps as part of McClernand's short lived Army of the
Mississippi. In January 1863 His division landed on the muddy banks of the
Mississippi at Arkansas Post and marched all night through the swamps in order
to approach the rebel fortress known as Fort Hindman from the less well
defended land ward side. He skillfully maneuvered his division through
the difficult terrain at Arkansas Post, established his artillery for maximum
effect on the fortress and led his men into position for a final assault.
The rebels sensing defeat surrendered Fort Hindman and its five thousand
man garrison. Later that month, he joined Grant's army assembling at
Milliken's Bend, Louisiana for the campaign against Vicksburg. In May
leading his division toward Vicksburg, he was wounded at Big Black River
Bridge but returned to duty two days later. He then served through the
balance of the siege of Vicksburg with the 9th Division and in July
took part in the capture of Jackson, Mississippi while in pursuit
of Confederate General Johnson's army. In the midst of the Vicksburg Campaign,
his beloved wife Mathilda died unexpectedly. He was assigned to the 1st
Division, Army of the Tennessee under Sherman in September 1863.
This assignment reunited him with the German American regiments from St.
Shortly after joining the 1st Division, President Lincoln ordered Grant
to move all available Union forces to the relief of Chattanooga. While
leading Sherman's movement toward Chattanooga, his troops skirmished constantly
with cavalry forces under General Nathan Bedford Forrest. At one
encounter near Cane Creek his troops severely wounded Forrest and broke
the rebel resistance impeding Sherman's advance. During the disposition
of troops around Chattanooga, the 1st Division was separated from Sherman's
column when a pontoon bridge gave way, so his division was attached to
Hooker's XX Corps which had recently arrived from the East. He led Hooker's
column during the assault on Missionary Ridge breaking through at Rossville
Gap. His rapid flanking movement caused General Bragg to order his army to
retreat into Georgia. His troops vigorously pursued Bragg as he fled into
Georgia and fought a bloody encounter at Ringgold. The following year his
division played a prominent part in the North Georgia Campaign. In
the midst of the Atlanta Campaign he became ill and while on sick leave was
promoted to major general. Returning to duty with Sherman's Army of the
Tennessee at Atlanta, he was promoted to Major General on August 4, 1864.
In spite of reoccurring illness he went on, with some absences, to march to the
sea with Sherman in command of the XV Corps. After Savannah's
capitulation, he participated in the early stages of the Carolinas Campaign but
upon return of Major General Logan from leave, he was soon sent to the
Gulf coast as Canby's chief of staff during the operations against
Mobile. After the conclusion of hostilities, he was ordered by Major
General Canby to take charge of the military district of Mississippi, head
quartered at Jackson and later at Vicksburg until January 1866 when he mustered
out at St. Louis, Missouri.
His assignments included: Major, Osterhaus' Missouri Battalion (April 27,
1861); Colonel, 12th Missouri (December 19, 1861); commanding 2nd Brigade,
Army of Southwest Missouri, Department of the Missouri (January-February
1862); commanding 1st Brigade, 1st Division, Army of Southwest Missouri,
Department of the Missouri (February-March 11, 1862); temporarily
commanding the division (March 6-8, 1862); commanding 1st Brigade, 1st
Division, Army of Southwest Missouri, Department of the Mississippi
(March 11 May 1862); commanding 3rd Division, Army of Southwest Missouri,
Department of the Mississippi (May-September 19, 1862); Brigadier General,
USV (June 9, 1862); commanding 3rd Brigade, Army of Southwest
Missouri, Department of the Missouri (September 19-December 1862);
1st Brigade, 1st Division, District of Eastern Arkansas, Department of the
Missouri (December 1862); commanding 9th Division, 13th Corps, Army of the
Tennessee (January 4-May 17 and May 19-July 28, 1863); commanding 1st
Division, 15th Corps, Army of the Tennessee (September 1, 1863-January
4, 1864, February 6-July 15, and August 19 September 23, 1864);
Major General, USV (July 23, 1864); commanding the XV Corps (September 23,
1864-January 8, 1865); and chief of staff, Military Division of West
Mississippi (January -May 27, 1865); commander, military department of
Mississippi (May-January 15, 1866).
Mustered out on January 15, 1866, he returned to St. Louis where he was
reunited with his children who were in the care of his sister-in-law, Amelia
Born. They were married later that year. He was appointed U.S.
Counsel at Lyon, France on June 18, 1866 serving in that capacity until
1879. In 1880 he returned to Germany with his wife where he was engaged
in business at Mannheim, Germany. He was again widowed when his wife
Amelia became ill and died in 1996. He was appointed U. S. Counsel at Mannheim
on March 16, 1898 and served in that capacity until his retirement from
government service on November 8, 1900. During his time in Germany, he
returned to the United States frequently to visit his sons and daughter
who remained in the United States.
During his retirement, he was often remembered for his service to his
adopted country and was made an honorary citizen of Bellville, Illinois on July
19, 1904. On February 24, 1905 the United States Senate awarded him the
rank of Brigadier General on the retired list with full pay and benefits
due his rank. On May 14, 1906 he returned from Europe to reside in
St. Louis where he lived for several years. He returned to Germany and
celebrated his 90th birthday on January 6, 1913 at Duisburg. He was again
advanced in rank by an act of Congress elevating him to the permanent rank on
the retired list of Major General in 1916. He was still collecting a pension
while living in Duisburg a few months before the United States entered World
War 1. He died at age 93 on December 31, 1916 and was buried in Duisburg.
He was survived by his sons Hugo W. , Alexander, Ludwig R. , his daughter
and their 30 grandchildren and great grandchildren. He was the last
surviving major general to have served in the Union Army during the Civil War.
Several of his descendants followed in his military tradition and had
distinguished military records while serving in the United States Armed
Forces. His grandson Hugo W. was an Admiral in the United States
Offered is a nice image of General U.S. Grant. Grant is standing and is wearing a mourning
ribbon for President Abraham Lincoln. Written under the image is “Lieut. Gen. U. S.
Grant”. There is no back mark.
Offered is a CDV of General Lovell Harrison Rousseau. Rousseau served as the Captain of the 2nd
Indiana Volunteers in the Mexican War.
He was elected to the Kentucky state senate in 1860 but resigned in 1861
to recruit volunteers for the Union. Rousseau
was commissioned Colonel of the 3rd Kentucky (Union) Infantry on
September 9, 1861. He was promoted
Brigadier General on October 1, 1861, and was promoted to Major General on
October 22, 1862. At Shiloh he commanded
a brigade of D.C. Buell’ Army of the Ohio and at Perryville gallantly led a
division of Alexander McD. McCook’s corps.
Subsequently, he succeeded to divisional command in G.H. Thomas’ Army of
the Cumberland, serving with distinction at the battle of Murfreesboro (Stone’s
River) in the Tullahoma campaign and at the end of the Chickamauga
campaign. Although he was not present at
the battle of Chickamauga itself, he rejoined his command the day after. From November, 1863 , until November, 1865,
General Rousseau had command of the districts of Nashville and of Tennessee,
the latter with headquarters at Murfreesboro.
He resigned in 1865 to take a seat in Congress.
The image is a bust shot.
The back mark is “Published by E. & H.T. Anthony, 501 Broadway, new
York, Manufacturers of the best Photographic Albums”.
Offered is an image of General Thomas Jefferson Henderson of
the 112 Illinois Infantry. Henderson
enlisted on September 22, 1862 as Colonel of the 112 Illinois Infantry. He was born in Brownsville, Tennessee in
1824. He was promoted Brevet Brigadier General
for his actions in Georgia and Tennessee but primarily for his actions at the
battle of Franklin, Tennessee.
The image is a CDV of General Henderson in a post war
setting. The back mark on the image is “Wm.
H. Elliott, Photographer, Marshalltown, Iowa”.
Written in pencil on the back is “Gen. Thos. J. Henderson M.C. –
Princeton, Ill – U.S. Army 1861 – 1865”. Written in ink on the back of the image is “a
friend of the family”.
Adjutant General's Report
One Hundred and Twelfth Regiment Illinois Volunteers was mustered into the
service of the United States on the 20th and 22d days of September 1862, at
Peoria, Ill., and was ordered to report to Major General Wright, commanding the
Department of the Ohio, at Cincinnati, O. It accordingly moved from
Peoria on the 8th day of October 1862, by rail, and arrived at
Cincinnati, O., about midnight, on the 10th day of October, when it was
immediately ordered over the Ohio River, to report to Major General Gordon
Granger, at Covington, Ky. The Regiment reported to General Granger about
2 o'clock on the morning of the 11th of October, and immediately went to work
to prepare for the field. Having been brigaded with the Thirty-third
Indiana, Seventy-seventh, Ninety-seventh and One Hundred and Eighth Illinois,
under command of Colonel Coburn, of the Thirty-third Indiana, and having
obtained transportation and supplies, it marched from Covington, Ky., on the
18th day of October 1862, for Falmouth, Ky.; but on the 19th day of October it
was detached from the Brigade and ordered to guard a large supply-train to Big
Eagle, on the Lexington and Covington pike. The Regiment arrived at Big
Eagle on the evening of the 21st of October, and, under orders, marched to
Georgetown, Ky., on the 23d, and to Lexington, Ky., on the 24th.
remained in camp at Lexington, Ky., for about five months, performing various
duties, but was principally engaged in grand guard and provost duty; although
detachments were occasionally sent to the ferries on the Kentucky River, to
guard against the approach of the enemy. And at one time, 100 men of the
Regiment were mounted and kept on active and severe duty for several weeks; and
while thus engaged, aided in driving Cluke's command out of Kentucky.
the 21st of March 1863, the Regiment moved for Danville, Ky., arriving there on
the evening of the 22d, and at midnight on the 23d, it was ordered back to
Dick's River bridge, on the Lexington pike, with orders to guard the bridge,
and hold the opposite bank of the river, at all hazards. It remained at
the bridge until the evening of the 24th, when it fell back to the Kentucky
River, at the mouth of Hickman, with the rest of the army, retreating before
was supposed to be a superior force of the enemy.
the Kentucky River, it marched back to Nicholasville, and from thence moved by
way of Camp Dick Robinson, Lancaster and Crab Orchard in the direction of
Somerset, Ky., in pursuit of the enemy, by forced marches. But the
cavalry and mounted infantry having overtaken and defeated the enemy at
Dutton's Hill, near Somerset, and driven him across the Cumberland River, the
Regiment having only heard the sound of artillery at a respectful distance,
counter-marched and moved back to Stanford.
October 1862, the Regiment, on its arrival at Lexington, Ky., was brigaded with
the Forty-fifth Ohio and the Eighteenth and Twenty-second Michigan, under
command of General Green Clay Smith, of Kentucky. He remained in command
until in January 1863, when Colonel Doolittle, of the Eighteenth Michigan, took
Stanford, the Regiment was again detached from the Brigade, and ordered to
Milledgeville, Ky., where it was mounted, and remained in camp until the 26th
of April, when, with the new Brigade, consisting of the Forty-fifth Ohio,
Thirty-second Kentucky and One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois, under command of
Colonel Benjamin P. Runkle, of the Forty-fifth Ohio, it marched for Somerset,
Somerset, it joined other troops, under the command of Brigadier General S. P.
Carter, of Tennessee, and moved to Monticello, Ky., south of the Cumberland
River, and aided in driving a body of rebel troops, under command of General
Pegram, from that place, and out of Kentucky into Tennessee. There the
Regiment was under fire for the first time, and although it was not severely
engaged and suffered no loss, it was complimented by Colonel Woolford for its
steadiness, who remarked that he could scarcely believe the Regiment had not
before been under fire.
Monticello, the Regiment returned to Somerset, Ky., where it remained until
July 1863, and where detachments from it were constantly engaged in active and
severe duty, scouting up an down the Cumberland River, often at great
distances, by night and by day; and in guarding fords and ferries on the
Cumberland River. While at Somerset, Ky., 200 picked men from the
Regiment, under command of Captain Dunn, of Company D, with similar detachments
from other regiments at Somerset, all under command of Major Dow, of the
Regiment, joined Colonel Sanders in his celebrated raid over the mountains into
East Tennessee. For rapidity of movement, marching over mountains, and
swimming rivers, by day and night, and for successful execution, baffling the
enemy doing him a great amount of damage, and, finally, escaping from a vastly
superior force, where every mountain gap was supposed to be securely guarded,
this raid stands among the most brilliant of the war. It severely tested
the courage and endurance of the men and officers who participated in it.
The detachment of the One Hundred and Twelfth lost, in this raid, eleven (11)
men captured, and five (5) drowned in swimming Clynch River, at night.
Somerset, Ky., the Regiment moved back to Danville, Ky., and in the month of
July, assisted in driving about fifteen hundred (1,500) rebels, under command
of Scott, across the Cumberland. It was four days and nights engaged in
the pursuit of Scott, with but little or no rest or sleep, and for more than a
100 miles was skirmishing with the enemy.
capturing about five hundred (500) prisoners-scattering many others in the
woods-and recovering most of the property stolen by these raiders, Scott was
finally driven over the Cumberland River and into the mountains, when the
Regiment again returned to Danville, Ky., having had one (1) man killed and six
(6) wounded in the pursuit and began the work of preparing for a campaign into
Danville, moved to Stanford, and from Stanford to Crab Orchard, from which
place, having completed the necessary preparation, the Regiment marched for
East Tennessee, with the army under General Burnside, re-brigaded with the
First East Tennessee Mounted Infantry, Eighth Michigan Cavalry and Forty-fifth
Ohio Mounted Infantry, under command of Colonel Byrd, of the First East
Tennessee, on the 21st of August 1863, and arrived at Kingston, Tenn., on the
1st of September.
Regiment actively participated in all the campaigns in East Tennessee, in 1863,
and, up to February 4, 1864, sharing in the glory of redeeming that truly loyal
people, and in wresting what was regarded as the key to the rebellion from
rebel rule. Being always at the front and often at great distance from
the main body of the army, it was kept constantly on the alert, and compelled
to perform the severest duties, always on short rations.
operations in East Tennessee were at Kingston, Post Oak Springs, Athens,
Calhoun, Charleston, Cleveland, Sweetwater, Philadelphia, Loudon, Campbell's
Station, Knoxville, Bean Station, Blane's Cross Roads, Dandridge, Sevinville,
Fair Gardens, Kelly's Ford, Flat Creek Cap, and other places, at many of which
it was engaged in numerous skirmishes and battles, and being constantly in the
presence of the enemy. At Cleveland, one (1) Captain was killed, several
men wounded, and about twenty (20) captured in a skirmish.
Calhoun, the Regiment, with the Brigade was driven back by an overpowering
force under Wheeler and Forrest, and the One Hundred and Twelfth brought up the
rear, and for the manner in which it was done, holding the enemy in check and
saving all the stores, it was complimented in an official order. It,
however, had 20 men captured and 1 Captain, who were guarding a ford on the
Hiawassa, and were cut off. At Philadelphia, it made a handsome charge
and drove the enemy from a hill, for which it was cheered by other troops, and
Major Dow, commanding, as well as the Regiment, was highly complimented by
General Sanders and other officers. In this charge, one man was killed
and several wounded.
Knoxville, the Regiment, with cavalry and other mounted infantry, was
thrown out in front to hold Longstreet in check, while the town was put in a
defensible condition, and on the 18th day of November 1863, behaved most
gallantly, and lost about 100 killed and wounded, and about 20 men cut
off and captured.
Bean Station, Dandridge and Flat Creek, the Regiment lost several in each
engagement, killed and wounded.
Kelly's Ford, on the 28th of January 1864, the Regiment had 19 wounded,
including 4 commissioned officers, and 1 man killed.
the fight at Kelly's Ford, the Regiment moved to Maryville, Tenn., and from
there to Knoxville, where it was dismounted, and marched on foot over the
mountains to Mt Sterling, Ky., a distance of about 200 miles. Arrived
there on the 23d of February, and remained until the 6th of April, where the
Regiment, after having been refitted as mounted infantry, and about ready for
the field, was permanently dismounted and moved to Camp Nelson, Ky., by way of
Lexington, where, after refitting for the field, as an infantry Regiment, it
marched back again over the mountains, into East Tennessee, and arrived at
Knoxville on the 3d or May.
Knoxville, on the 8th day of May, the Regiment moved, by rail, to Cleveland,
Tenn., and from thence marched on foot to Tunnel Hill, Ga., in charge of a
large ordnance and ambulance train; reported to Major General Schofield,
commanding Department of Ohio, and the Twenty-third Army Corps, in the
field. The Regiment had been re-brigaded with the One Hundredth Ohio, One
Hundred and Fourth Ohio, Eleventh and Sixteenth Kentucky, under command
of Colonel James W. Riley, of the One Hundred and Fourth Ohio, and known as the
First Brigade, Third Division-under command of Brigadier General Cox-Twenty-third
this time on, the Regiment participated in the campaign of General
Sherman, against Atlanta, and was with the Twenty-third Army Corps in all its
movements in that interesting campaign. At Resaca, on the 14th day of
May, it was actively engaged, and lost some 50 men killed and wounded-among the
latter the Colonel.
Utoy Creek, on the right of Atlanta, the Regiment, on the 6th of August 1863,
with the Brigade, made an unsuccessful assault on the enemy's works, and lost
71 men killed, wounded and missing. Among the wounded were the
Lieutenant Colonel, 3 Captains and 1 Lieutenant. 3 Sergeants and 1
Corporal were killed on the field.
Regiment was engaged in numerous other battles and skirmishes of this
the 8th of August, the Regiment was again re-brigaded with the Sixty-third, One
Hundred and Twentieth and One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Indiana and Fifth
Tennessee Regiments, under command of Colonel Thomas J. Henderson, of the
One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois. The Brigade was known as the Third
Brigade, Third Division, Twenty-third Army Corps, and the Regiment remained in
it until it was mustered out of the service at the end of the war.
the 31st of August, after having cut loose from Atlanta, and struck for the
Macon Railroad-General Cox being anxious to be the first to reach the road-an
object it had so long and so severely struggled to accomplish-ordered the One
Hundred and Twelfth Illinois, under command of Major Dow, to report to him
personally, when the Regiment immediately pushed forward, drove the enemy
rapidly back, and successfully reached the Macon Railroad, just in time to cut
off three of four long trains, with ordnance, etc., and commenced the work
of tearing up the track. From this moment, all felt that the fall
of Atlanta was certain. After marching down to Jonesboro, learned of the
evacuation of Atlanta, and on to Lovejoy, the Regiment returned with the army
and with the Twenty-third Army Corps, went into camp at Decatur, Ga., and to
rest, after being for four months marching and fighting, constantly in the
presence of the enemy, and under fire almost every hour of the day and
night. Here the Regiment remained, from the 8th of September until the
4th of October, when Hood having re-crossed the Chattahoochie, the Regiment and
Brigade, with Sherman's Army, moved in pursuit, and marched during the month,
by indirect marches, nearly 400 miles, passing through Marietta, Ackworth,
Allatoona, Carterville, Cassville, Kingston, Rome, Calhoun, Resaca, Snake Creek
Gap, Villanow, Sommerville, Gaylesville and Cedar Bluff, Ala., and then back
again to Rome.
the Regiment, with the Twenty-third Army Corps, was separated from General
Sherman, and sent back into East Tennessee, to look after Hood, who was
reported to have crossed the Tennessee. It accordingly marched on foot to
Dalton, Ga., and from thence by rail moved to Nashville, and to Thompson
Station, below Franklin, and from thence marched to Pulaski, Tenn., on foot.
in camp, at Pulaski, until the 22d of November, when it commenced retreating to
Nashville. During the retreat, participated in the battles of Columbia
and Franklin, losing some 30 or 40 men killed and wounded.
Regiment also participated in the battles of Nashville, on the 15th and 16th of
December. The battles of Franklin November 30th- and Nashville,
were glorious battles, and virtually terminated the war in the West.
Regiment, with the Twenty-third Army Corps, having pursued Hood's Army to the
Tennessee River, was then ordered to a new field of operations, and proceeded
by steamboat down the Tennessee and up the Ohio River to Cincinnati, and from
that city, by rail, to Washington City. From Alexandria, it went by the
steamship "Atlantic" to Fort Fisher, North Carolina. The
Regiment then aided in the reduction of Fort Anderson, in driving the enemy
from his works at Town Creek bridge, and finally from Wilmington, which place was
occupied on the 22d of February 1865. From Wilmington the Regiment marched to
Kingston, N.C., passing to Goldsboro, and, with the army, occupied that
place. From Goldsboro, moved to Raleigh. At Raleigh, after the
surrender of Johnson's Army, moved to Greensboro, N.C., where the Regiment
remained until the 20th of June 1865, when it was mustered out of the service,
and ordered to Chicago, Ill. The Regiment arrived at Chicago on the 27th
of June; was finally discharged on the 7th day of July 1865.
Regiment was always in the Department of the Ohio, and served in the
Twenty-third Army Corps, from its organization to the close of the war.
Offered is a CDV of General William Woods Averell. Averell graduated West Point in 1851 and had two years rugged service against the southwestern Indians, during which he was severly wounded. He invalided out until the outbreak of the Civil War. He took part in the first battle of Manassass and was then commisioned Colonel of the 3rd Pennsylvania Cavalry. He participated in the Peninsular campaign as commander of a brigade; in the campaign which culminated at Sharpsburg; at Fredericksburg, in December, 1862; and in various skirmishes of the mounted branch of the Army of the Potomac. His 2nd Cavalry Division won the first claimed victory of the Federal horse over the COnfederates at Kelly's Ford, Virginia, in March, 1863 - an action said to have been the turning point of cavalry fighting in the Eastern theater. Meanwhile he was appointed brigadier general of volunteers on September 26, 1862. After taking part in George Stoneman's famous but ill-starred raid on Richmond during the campaign of Chancellorsville, Averell was employed in monor operations in western Virginia until Philip Sheridan's Shenandoah campaign. At the end of the war he was brevetted brigadier and Major general, U.S. Army, and resigned on May 18, 1865.
The image is a bust shot of Averell in a brigadiers uniform. The backmark is "Photographed by Ewing & Co., Cumberland, MD.". The upper right back corner is missing a small amount of the backing card. This does not affect the image.
A nice full standing photograph of an Indiana soldier holding his kepi and a saxhorn. The backmark on the image is "W.Evernden, Photographer, No. 89 Main St. Lafayette, Ind.". A nice band member photograph.
Lt. Col. Henry H. Granger - 10 Massachusetts Light Artillery - KIA - CDV
Item #: 14538
Click image to enlarge
A great 3/4 standing photograph of Captain/Major/Lt. Colonel Henry H. Granger of the 10th Massachusetts Light Artillery. In this photograph Granger is in his captains frock coat with sash, sword belt plate and rig, and cavalry saber. The photograph was taken by "Allen - 13 Winter St." as noted on the front of the CDV undr the photograph.
Granger enlisted in August 1862 as a 1st Lieutentant. He was wounded at hatcher's Run, Virginia on October 27, 1864 and died three days later on October30, 1864.
The 10th Massachusetts Light Artillery mustered out of service June 9, 1865 and was discharged on June 14, 1865.
Left Massachusetts for Washington, D.C., October 14. Duty at Camp Barry, defenses of Washington, October 17 to December 26, 1862. Moved to Poolesville, Md., December 26–28, and duty there until June 24, 1863. Moved to Maryland Heights June 24, then to Frederick City and Frederick Junction June 30-July 1. Marched to Williamsport July 8–11. Near Antietam Bridge July 12–14. Operations in Loudoun Valley July 17–31. Wapping Heights July 23. Near Warrenton July 26–31. At Sulphur Springs July 31-September 15. Near Culpeper September 17-October 10. Bristoe Campaign October 10–22. Auburn October 13. Near Fairfax Station October 15–19. At Catlett's Station October 21–30. At Warrenton Junction until November 6. Kelly's Ford November 7, At Brandy Station November 9–25. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. Payne's Farm November 27. At Brandy Station December 3, 1863 to April 8, 1864, and at Stevensburg until May 3. Rapidan Campaign May–June. Battles of the Wilderness May 5–7. Spotsylvania May 8–12. Spotsylvania Court House May 12–21. Assault on the Salient, Spotsylvania Court House, May 12. Harris Farm, Fredericksburg Road, May 19. North Anna River May 23–26. Line of the Pamunkey May 26–28. Totopotomoy May 28–31. Cold Harbor June 1–12. Before Petersburg June 16–18. Siege of Petersburg June 16, 1864 to April 2, 1865. Jerusalem Plank Road June 22–23, 1864. Demonstration north of the James River July 27–29. Deep Bottom July 27–28. Strawberry Plains, Deep Bottom, August 14–18. Ream's Station August 25. In the trenches before Petersburg in Battery 14 September 24 to October 24. Boydton Plank Road, Hatcher's Run, October 27–28. In Forts Stevenson, Blaisdell, and Welch until November 29. Movement to Hatcher's Run December 9–10. In Forts Emery and Siebert until February 5, 1865. Dabney's Mills, Hatcher's Run, February 5–7. Watkins' House March 25. Appomattox Campaign March 28-April 9. Moved to Dabney's Mills March 30. Fall of Petersburg April 2. Pursuit of Lee April 8–9. Sailor's Creek April 6. Cover the crossing of II Corps at High Bridge, Farmville, April 7. Appomattox Court House April 9. Surrender of Lee and his army. March to Burkesville April 11–14. March to Washington, D.C., May 2–13. Grand Review of the Armies May 23.
The battery lost a total of 24 men during service; 2 officers and 6 enlisted men killed or mortally wounded, 16 enlisted men died of disease.
Captain George E. Blair - 17 Ohio Infantry - POW - CDV Type
Item #: 14813
Click image to enlarge
A nice bust up photograph of Captain George E. Blair, of the 17th Ohio Volunteer Infantry. The period photograph is attached to a thinner piece of backing than the normal CDV and there is no backmark. Typed on paper is "George E. Blair, Captain 17th Ohio Vols.". The size of the backing is 2 1/2 inches by 4 3/8 inches. The photograph is Civil War period. The backing doesn't seem to be.
A great photograph showing Civil War fortifications at Manassas, Virginia. An Union officer sits on a barrel on the left side of the photograph and an Union enlisted soldier stands on the right. You can see a train and wagons in the background. The photgraph was taken by Matthew Brady Photographic group.. On the back of the CDV is "Brady's Album Gallery. No. 324. - FORTIFICATIONS AT MANASSAS.".
A nice bust up image of Major General Henry Warner Slocum, USA. Written in brown ink under the photo is "Slocum". The back of the image has no backmark but "Maj. Gen. Slocum" is written in period ink.
Major General Henry Warner Slocum (USA)
Henry Warner Slocum was born in Delphi, New York. He graduated from the United States Military Academy seventh of 43 cadets in the class of 1852. He tutored his roommate, Philip Sheridan, in mathematics. Slocum was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 1st U.S. Artillery and served in the Seminole War and at Fort Moultrie in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina. He was promoted to first lieutenant in 1855 and resigned his commission in October 1856 to settle in Syracuse, New York. He was admitted to the bar in 1858 and practiced law in Syracuse. He served as the county treasurer and was a member of the New York State Assembly in 1859. He also served as an artillery instructor in the New York Militia with the rank of colonel.
At the outbreak of the Civil War, Slocum was appointed colonel of the 27th New York Infantry. He led the regiment as part of Colonel Andrew Porter’s 1st Brigade, Colonel David Hunter’s 2nd Division at the First Battle of Bull Run on 21 July 1861. The 27th New York suffered 130 casualties and Slocum was severely wounded in the left thigh.
On 9 August 1861, he was promoted to brigadier general of volunteers and commanded the 2nd Brigade of Brig. Gen. William B. Franklin’s 1st Division, Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell’s I Corps, during the Peninsula Campaign. During the Seven Days Battles, he commanded the 1st Division of Franklin’s VI Corps distinguishing himself at the Battle of Gaines’ Mill on 27 June 1862. V Corps commander Fitz-John Porter complimented Slocum’s division as “one of the best divisions in the Army.”
On 4 July 1862, Slocum was promoted to major general of volunteers, the second youngest man in the Army to achieve that rank. He led his division covering the retreat of Maj. Gen. John Pope after the Second Battle of Bull Run on 29-30 August. At Crampton’s Gap during the Battle of South Mountain on 14 September, Slocum assaulted the enemy line behind a stone wall and routed it. Franklin described the victory as “the completest victory gained up to that time by any part of the Army of the Potomac.”
On 20 October 1862, Slocum was promoted to command of the XII Corps replacing Maj. Gen. Joseph K. Mansfield who was killed at the Battle of Antietam. He led the corps in the Fredericksburg Campaign but was not involved in the fighting at Fredericksburg. At the Battle of Chancellorsville on 1-5 May 1863, Slocum commanded the Union right wing, including the XII Corps, Maj. Gen. George G. Meade’s V Corps, and Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard’s XI Corps. Slocum maneuvered his wing into the read of Robert E. Lee’s army, halting the Confederate advance.
Slocum was not considered for command of the Army of the Potomac following Joseph Hooker’s resignation and his junior in rank George G. Meade assumed command. Slocum played a decisive role at Gettysburg. His XII Corps held Culp’s Hill on the Union right ensuring Meade’s ultimate victory against Lee. However, Slocum has been criticized by historians for not immediately coming to Howard’s XI Corps aid on 1 July 1863. Recently uncovered information seems to vindicate Slocum. He immediately sent Brig. Gen. Alpheus S. Williams’ 1st Division to aid Howard at Gettysburg and prepared the rest of his corps to move despite an order from Meade that morning ordering Slocum to “halt [his] command where this order reach[ed] [him].”
When Slocum reached Gettysburg, he outranked Howard and Winfield Scott Hancock and commanded the Union army for about six hours until Meade arrived after midnight. During this time, he formed the Union defensive lines. When Meade asked if the army should attack or await the attack of the enemy, Slocum recommended to “stay and fight it out.”
On 2 July, Meade ordered Slocum to send the entire XII Corps to assist the defense against Lt. Gen. James Longstreet’s assault on the left flank. Slocum wisely held back Brig. Gen. George S. Greene’s brigade on Culp’s Hill. The 1,350-man brigade held out against a massive Confederate assault saving the critical hill for the Union.
After Gettysburg, Howard’s XI Corps and Slocum’s XII Corps under Joseph Hooker were sent to relieve the Army of the Cumberland at Chattanooga, Tennessee. Slocum sent two letters of resignation to President Lincoln when he learned he would be serving under Hooker. A compromise was reached where one division of XII Corps would remain under Slocum’s command to protect the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad while the other served directly under Hooker.
During the summer of 1864, Slocum commanded the District of Vicksburg and the XVII Corps of the Department of the Tennessee. Slocum’s administration of the district was so efficient and successful that attempts to transfer to a fighting command in Georgia were prevented by Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant.
When Maj. Gen. James B. McPherson was killed during the Atlanta Campaign, command of the Army of the Tennessee opened up. Hooker was passed over and he resigned his commission. John A. Logan and Howard would command the Army of the Tennessee. Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman selected Slocum to command the new XX Corps made up of the remnants of XI and XII Corps. When Atlanta fell, Slocum and his corps were the first to enter the city on 2 September 1864. He was occupation commander for 10 weeks and tried to make the occupation tolerable for the civilians. At the start of the Franklin-Nashville Campaign, Sherman left Slocum with 12,000 troops in Atlanta as Sherman pursued Lt. Gen. John Bell Hood.
During Sherman’s March to Sea, Slocum commanded the newly created Army of Georgia, composed of the Brig. Gen. Jefferson C. Davis’ XIV Corps and Brig. Gen. Alpheus S. Williams’ XX Corps, operating as the left wing. Sherman’s right wing was the Army of the Tennessee commanded by Howard. The men travelled light foraging for supplies on the march to Savannah, Georgia. Slocum took the surrender of the city on 21 December 1864, and then set up fire guards and prevented the city from being damaged. Slocum recommended cutting off Confederate Gen. William J. Hardee’s corps, but Sherman rejected the plan and Hardee escape to fight again at Bentonville.
During the Carolinas Campaign, Slocum’s army was heavily engaged at the Battle of Averasborough on 15-16 March 1865, and the Battle of Bentonville, on 19 March, where Slocum successfully held off a surprise assault by Gen. Joseph E. Johnston. Johnston surrendered on 17 April. Slocum then commanded the Department of the Mississippi from April through September 1865. He resigned and returned to Syracuse, New York.
Slocum ran as the Democratic candidate for Secretary of State of New York in 1865 but was defeated by fellow Gettysburg General Francis C. Barlow. He was elected as a Democrat to the 41st and 42nd Congresses (4 March 1869 – 3 March 1873). Slocum took an active interest in military and veterans’ affairs. He worked in Congress for the exoneration of Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter who was court-martialed after the Second Battle of Bull Run. Slocum gave a strong speech on Porter’s behalf in Congress on 18 January 1884.
He was appointed Commissioner of the department of city works of Brooklyn, New York in 1876. He was again elected in 1882 as a representative-at-large to the 48th Congress. He remained friends with Sherman until Sherman’s death and both he and Howard planned Sherman’s funeral and were pall bearers along with old foe Joseph E. Johnston. Henry Slocum died on 14 April 1894 in Brooklyn, New York.
Major General John Sedgwick - 1st U.S. Cavalry - KIA - CDV
Item #: 15531
Click image to enlarge
A nice image of Major General John Sedgwick, one of the most beloved soldiers in the Army of the Potomac. He graduated West Point in 1837 and served against the Seminoes and Cherokee Indians. He served under both Generals Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott in the Mexican War and won brevets of captain and major. He was major of the 1st U.S. Cavalry and was promoted colonel on the defection to the Confederacy of R.E. Lee and William J. Hardee. He was commisioned brigadier general on August 31, 1861. He fought on the Peninsula until he was wounded at Frayser's Farm in June 1862. He was promoted major general in July 1862. He was wounded three times at Sharpsburg and was carried from the field. After his recovery he commanded the VI corps. He commanded at Chancellorsville,Gettysburg, and the Wilderness. At Spottsylvania he exposed himself to enemy fire and his aides cautioned him. His reply, "they couldn't hit an elephant at this distance," was soon followed by the whistle and thump of a sharpshooters bullet which struck him below the left eye and killed him almost instantly.
This great image of General Sedgwick has him seated wearing his major general's uniform. The backmark on this image is "E.&H.T. Anthony, New York". There is a a very small piece of the image missing in the upper right corner.
A neat CDV of General George H. Thomas is offered. This image is a waist up view with Thomas holding his hat. He is wearing his Major General uniform. The back mark was origionally Brady's but has a paper slip with "Specialite. Selby & McCauley, Photograph Albumn & Carte de Visite Depot, No. 36 West Baltimore Street.".
George Henry Thomas (1816-1870)
Unlike his fellow Virginian Robert E. Lee, George Thomas remained loyal to the Union. During Nat Turner's bloody slave revolt, Thomas had led his family to safety and subsequently attended West Point (1840). A veteran of the Seminole and Mexican wars and an artillery and cavalry instructor at the academy, he was a major in the 2nd, soon to be the 5th Cavalry at the time of the secession crisis. His war assignments included: lieutenant colonel, 2nd Cavalry (April 25, 1861); colonel, 2nd Cavalry (May 3, 1861); commanding 1st Brigade, in the 1st Division, Department of Pennsylvania (June-July 25,1861), in the Department of the Shenandoah July 25-August 17, 1861), and in Banks' Division, Army of the Potomac (August 17-28, 1861); brigadier general, USV (August 3,1861); commanding Camp Dick Robinson, Ken., Department of the Ohio (October-December 2, 1861); commanding lst Division, Army of the Ohio (December 2, 1861 - April 30,1862 and June 10 - September 29,1862); major general, USV (April 25,1862); commanding Army of the Tennessee (April 30-June 10, 1862); second in command of the Army of the Ohio (September 29-October 24, 1862); commanding Centre, 14th Corps, Army of the Cumberland (November 5, 1862 - January 9, 1863); commanding the corps January 9 - October 28,1863); brigadier general, USA (October 27,1863); commanding the army (October 28, 1863 - September 26, 1864); commanding Department of the Cumberland (October 28, 1863 June 27, 1865); and major general, USA (December 15, 1864). After brief service in the East, Thomas was sent to Kentucky and commanded at Mill Springs. After arriving too late for the fighting at Shiloh, he commanded the Army of the Tennessee, replacing Grant who was shelved by being made second in command to Halleck. After participating in the slow drive on Corinth, Thomas returned to Kentucky and fought at Perryville and later at Stones River and in the Tullahoma Campaign. At Chickamauga, after most of the army had fled the field, Thomas stubbornly held out on the second day at Snodgrass Hill, earning the nickname "The Rock of Chickamauga." After the defeat the army was besieged at Chattanooga, and Grant was promoted to overall command in the West and sent with reinforcements. He was given duplicate orders, one leaving General Rosecrans in command of the Army of the Cumberland and the other giving Thomas the post. Grant chose the latter although he resented Thomas for being replaced after Shiloh. Thomas' men broke through the Confederate lines at Missionary Ridge and later took part in the capture of Atlanta. With Hood's Army of Tennessee threatening Tennessee, in Sherman's rear, Thomas was detached with two corps to deal with him. This was effectively the end of the Army of the Cumberland. After being briefly besieged at Nashville, Thomas, who was about to be removed for being too slow, attacked and routed the rebels. For this, one of the most decisive battles of the war, Thomas became one of 13 officers to receive the Thanks of Congress. Hood's command was no longer a real threat to anyone. With most of his forces sent to other theaters of operations, Thomas remained in command in Tennessee until 1867, when he was assigned to command on the Pacific coast until his death in 1870. (McKinney, Francis F., Education in Violence: The Life ofGeorge H. Thomas and the History of the Army of theCumberland) Source: "Who Was Who In The Civil War" by Stewart Sifakis
A great image of the battle flags of the 44th New York Infantry - the Ellsworth Avengers. The flag staff is in front of the flag and you can clearly see the "44" in the middle of the flag. The 44th New York Infantry was one of Fox's 300 Fighting Regiments!
44th Infantry Regiment Civil War Ellsworth Avengers; People's Ellsworth Regiment
Mustered in: August 30, 1861 to September 24, 1861. Mustered out: October 11, 1864.
The following is taken from New York in the War of the Rebellion, 3rd ed. Frederick Phisterer. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company, 1912. This regiment, Col. Stephen W. Stryker, was recruited under the auspices of the Ellsworth Association of the State of New York. The original plan was to obtain from every ward and town of the State one man; this plan was not adhered to, but later more than one enlistment was allowed to each, and the counties of Albany and Erie furnished each two companies, and Herkimer county one company. The men reported individually at Albany, where the regiment was organized under orders from the State dated October 15, 1861. The companies were mustered in the service of the United States for three years, A, E, C, D and E August 30; F and G September 6; H and I September 15, and K September 24, 1861. September 20, 1862, Companies C and E were merged into the others, and replaced by new companies, recruited at Albany, October 21, 1862. New Company E was also known as the Normal School Company. In June, 1863, the three years' men of the 14th and 25th Infantries joined the regiment by transfer. September 23, 1864, the men not entitled to be mustered out with the regiment were formed into a battalion, and October 11, 1864, this battalion was transferred to the 140th Infantry (266 enlisted men), and the 146th Infantry (183 enlisted men). The regiment left the State October 21, 1861; served in the 3d Brigade, 1st Division, Army of the Potomac, from October 26, 1861; in the 3d Brigade, 1st Division, 3d Corps, Army of the Potomac, from March, 1862; in the 3d Brigade, 1st Division, 5th Corps, Army of the Potomac, from May, 1862, and it was honorably discharged and mustered out, under Col. Freeman Conner, October 11, 1864, at Albany. During its service the regiment lost by death, killed in action, 5 officers, 120 enlisted men; of wounds received in action, 1 officer, 62 enlisted men; of disease and other causes, 2 officers, 145 enlisted men; total, 8 officers, 327 enlisted men; aggregate, 335; of whom 15 enlisted men died in the hands of the enemy.
The following is taken from The Union army: a history of military affairs in the loyal states, 1861-65 -- records of the regiments in the Union army -- cyclopedia of battles -- memoirs of commanders and soldiers. Madison, WI: Federal Pub. Co., 1908. volume II. Forty-fourth Infantry.—Cols., Stephen W. Stryker, James C. Rice, Freeman Conner; Lieut.-Cols., James C. Rice, Edward P. Chapin, Freeman Conner, Edward B. Knox; Majs., Stephen W. Stryker, James McKown, Edward P. Chapin, Freeman Conner, Edward B. Knox, Campbell Allen. The 44th regiment, known as Ellsworth's Avengers, was organized at Albany under the auspices of the Ellsworth association of the State of New York, which planned to raise a memorial regiment to be composed of one man from each town and ward, unmarried, not over 30 years of age or under 5 feet, 8 inches in height, and of military experience. This plan was adhered to as far as possible and two companies from Albany county, two from Erie county, one from Herkimer county, and a large number of scattered squads reported at Albany in response to the request. These companies were mustered into the service of the United States at Albany in Aug. and Sept., 1861, for three years, and two new companies from Albany were mustered in Oct. 21, 1862. The regiment, numbering 1,061 men, left Albany on Oct. 21, 1861, for Washington and upon its arrival there was assigned to the 3d brigade, 1st division, later with the 5th corps. Camp was established on Oct. 28, at Hall's hill, Va., and the winter was passed there with routine duties. On March 10, 1862, the regiment led the advance to Centerville, but soon returned to Fairfax and proceeded thence to Yorktown, arriving on April 1. From May 5 to 19, the 44th garrisoned Fort Magruder; then moved to Games' mill; was engaged at Hanover Court House, with the loss of 86 killed, wounded and missing; participated in the Seven Days' battles with a total loss of 56 at Gaines' mill and 99 at Malvern Hill, out of 225 engaged in the last named battle. Returning to Alexandria, the regiment moved by way of Fortress Monroe to Manassas, and in the battle of Aug. 30 lost 71 killed, wounded or missing. It was in reserve at Antietam; was active at Shepherdstown, and Fredericksburg; shared in the hardships of Burnside's "Mud March," and returned to winter quarters at Stoneman's switch, near Falmouth. Camp was broken on April 27, 1863, for the Chancellorsville campaign, the 44th being in the lead during the general movement of the army and sharing in the fighting, after which it returned for a short rest to the camp at Stoneman's switch. In June, the veterans of the 14th and 25th N. Y. were added to the 44th. At Gettysburg the regiment was posted on the left of the line and joined in the defense of Little Round Top, where it met with its greatest loss—111 killed, wounded and missing. After spending some weeks in camp at Emmitsburg, the command was present at the battle of Bristoe Station, active at Rappahannock Station and in the Mine Run campaign, and went into winter quarters at Brandy Station. In Dec., 1863, a large number of the men reenlisted and rejoined the regiment in camp after their veteran furlough. May, 1864, was the month of the memorable Wilderness campaign, in which the regiment served faithfully, suffering most severely at the Wilderness and at Bethesda Church. By this time the regiment had become greatly reduced in numbers by hard service and the loss in this campaign, while not so large in numbers as in previous battles, was even greater in proportion to the number of men engaged. The regiment was active in the first assault on Petersburg in June, 1864, at the Weldon railroad, and at Poplar Spring Church. On Oct. 11 , 1864, the 44th was mustered out at Albany and the veterans and recruits were consolidated into a battalion, of which 266 men were transferred to the 140th and 183 to the 146th N. Y. The total strength of the regiment was 1,585, of whom 188 died during the term of service from wounds received in action, and 147 died from accident, imprisonment or disease. The total loss in killed, wounded and missing was 730. The men chosen for this command were of the flower of the state and displayed their heroism on many a desperately contested field, where they won laurels for themselves. and for their state. Col. Fox numbers the 44th among the "three hundred fighting regiments."