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Mahone's Brigade Survivors 1903 Reunion Celluloid Badge

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A wonderful badge worn by a survivor of Mahone's Brigade at the 1903 reunion held in Petersburg, Virginia.  This really great badge has a red ribbon with a pin for a hanger.  The hanger is attached to a large celluloid pin back button.  The button is approximately 2 inches wide.  Written on the celluloid drop is "Mahone's Brigade Reunion of the Survivors of the Charge of the Crater - Petersburg, VA. - November 6th, 1903".  The writing is surrounded by a Confederate battle flag and a gold colored division between the writing and the battle flag.  On the back of the drop is a Confederate battle flag.  Written around the flag is "Battle of the Crater - July 30, 1864".  The badge was made by the Whitehead & Hoag Company of Newark, New Jersey as noted by the manufactures label attached to the back of the hanger.


The Battle of the Crater

Two weeks after Union forces arrived to invest the Confederate defenders of Petersburg, the battle lines of both sides had settled into a stalemate. Since Cold Harbor, Lieut. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant was reluctant to mount a frontal attack against well-entrenched Confederates. By late June, Grant's lines covered most of the eastern approaches to Petersburg, but neither side seemed ready to risk an offensive move. Part of the Union line was held by Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside's Ninth Corps. Some of Burnside's men were Pennsylvania miners, and they approached Burnside with a plan.  They would tunnel underground from behind Union lines to a point underneath a Confederate position and fill the mine with explosives. When detonated, the resulting explosion would destroy a portion of the Rebel lines that could be exploited by infantry. Grant demurred but the digging began. On July 30th, after weeks of preparation, the Federals exploded the mine beneath a Confederate salient, blowing a gap in the defenses. At that point, everything deteriorated rapidly for the Union attackers. Unit after unit, most of whom were U. S. Colored Troops, charged into and around the crater, where most of them milled in confusion in the bottom of the crater. The Confederates quickly recovered and launched several counterattacks led by Maj. Gen. William Mahone. The break was sealed off, and the Federals were repulsed with severe casualties. Most of the black soldiers were badly mauled. Instead of ending the siege, both sides settled in for eight months of trench warfare. Burnside was relieved of command for his role in the debacle.

Major General John F. Reynolds Gettysburg Monument Pin Back

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A great pin back with the Gettysburg monument of Major General John F. Reynolds in the middle.  Around the monument is written "Gen. John F. Reynolds - Lancaster, PA.".  The pin back is approximately 1 1/4 inches wide.  The pin back was made by the Sommer badge Manufacturing Company, Newark, New Jersey.  


John F. Reynolds

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John Reynolds
GenJFRenyolds.jpg
Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds
Born(1820-09-20)September 20, 1820
Lancaster, Pennsylvania
DiedJuly 1, 1863(1863-07-01) (aged 42)
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
Place of burialLancaster Cemetery, Lancaster, Pennsylvania
AllegianceUnited States of America
Union
Service/branchUnited States Army
Union Army
Years of service1841–1863
RankUnion Army major general rank insignia.svg Major General
Commands heldI Corps, Army of the Potomac
Battles/wars

Mexican–American War

American Civil War

John Fulton Reynolds (September 20, 1820 – July 1, 1863)[1] was a career United States Army officer and a general in the American Civil War. One of the Union Army's most respected senior commanders, he played a key role in committing the Army of the Potomac to the Battle of Gettysburg and was killed at the start of the battle.

Reynolds was born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, one of nine surviving children of John Reynolds (1787–1853) and Lydia Moore Reynolds (1794–1843). Two of his brothers were James LeFevre Reynolds, Quartermaster General of Pennsylvania, and Rear Admiral Will Reynolds.[2] Prior to his military training, Reynolds studied in nearby Lititz, about 6 miles (9.7 km) from his home in Lancaster. Next he attended a school in Long Green, Maryland, and finally the Lancaster County Academy.[3]

Reynolds was nominated to the United States Military Academy in 1837 by Senator James Buchanan, a family friend, and graduated 26th of 50 cadets in the class of 1841. He was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the 3rd U.S. Artillery, assigned to Fort McHenry. From 1842 to 1845 he was assigned to St. Augustine, Florida, and Fort Moultrie, South Carolina, before joining Zachary Taylor's army at Corpus Christi, Texas, for the Mexican–American War. He was awarded two brevet promotions in Mexico—to captain for gallantry at Monterrey and to major for Buena Vista, where his section of guns prevented the Mexican cavalry from outflanking the American left.[4] During the war, he became friends with fellow officers Winfield Scott Hancock and Lewis A. Armistead.

On his return from Mexico, Reynolds was assigned to Fort Preble, Maine, New Orleans, Louisiana, and Fort Lafayette, New York. He was next sent west to Fort Orford, Oregon, in 1855, and participated in the Rogue River Wars of 1856 and the Utah War with the Mormons in 1857-58. He was the Commandant of Cadets at West Point from September 1860 to June 1861, while also serving as an instructor of artillery, cavalry, and infantry tactics. During his return from the West, Reynolds became engaged to Katherine May Hewitt. Since they were from different religious denominations—Reynolds was a Protestant, Hewitt a Catholic—the engagement was kept a secret and Hewitt's parents did not learn about it until after Reynolds' death.[5]

Civil War

Early assignments and the Seven Days[edit]

Soon after the start of the Civil War, Reynolds was offered the position as aide-de-camp to Lt. Gen. Winfield Scott, but declined. He was appointed lieutenant colonel of the 14th U.S. Infantry, but before he could engage with that unit, he was promoted to brigadier general on August 20, 1861, and ordered to report to Washington, D.C. While in transit, his orders were changed to report to Cape Hatteras Inlet, North Carolina. Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan intervened with the Secretary of War to get his orders changed once again, assigning him to the newly formed Army of the Potomac. His first assignment was with a board that examined the qualifications of volunteer officers, but he soon was given command of a brigade of Pennsylvania Reserves.[6]

As McClellan's army moved up the Virginia Peninsula in the 1862 Peninsula Campaign, Reynolds occupied and became military governor of Fredericksburg, Virginia. His brigade was then ordered to join the V Corps at Mechanicsville, just before the start of the Seven Days Battles. The brigade was hit hard by the Confederate attack of June 26 at the Battle of Beaver Dam Creek, but their defensive line held and Reynolds later received a letter of commendation from his division commander, Brig. Gen. George A. McCall.[7]

The Confederate attack continued on June 27 and Reynolds, exhausted from the Battle of Gaines' Mill and two days without sleep, was captured in Boatswain's Swamp, Virginia. Thinking he was in a place of relative safety, he fell asleep and was not aware that his retreating troops left him behind. He was extremely embarrassed when brought before the Confederate general of the capturing troops; D.H. Hill was an Army friend and colleague from before the war. Hill allegedly told him, "Reynolds, do not feel so bad about your capture, it is the fate of wars."[8] Reynolds was transported to Richmond and held at Libby Prison, but was quickly exchanged on August 15 (for Lloyd Tilghman).[9]

Second Bull Run, Fredericksburg, and Chancellorsville

J Renyolds.jpg

Upon his return, Reynolds was given command of the Pennsylvania Reserves Division, whose commander, McCall, had been captured just two days after Reynolds. The V Corps joined the Army of Virginia, under Maj. Gen. John Pope, at Manassas. On the second day of the Second Battle of Bull Run, while most of the Union Army was retreating, Reynolds led his men in a last-ditch stand on Henry House Hill, site of the great Union debacle at First Bull Run the previous year. Waving the flag of the 2nd Reserves regiment, he yelled, "Now boys, give them the steel, charge bayonets, double quick!" His counterattack halted the Confederate advance long enough to give the Union Army time to retreat in a more orderly fashion, arguably the most important factor in preventing its complete destruction.[10]

At the request of Pennsylvania Governor Andrew G. Curtin, Reynolds was given command of the Pennsylvania Militia during General Robert E. Lee's invasion of Maryland. Generals McClellan and Joseph Hooker complained that "a scared governor ought not to be permitted to destroy the usefulness of an entire division," but the governor prevailed and Reynolds spent two weeks in Pennsylvania drilling old men and boys, missing the Battle of Antietam. However, he returned to the Army of the Potomac in late 1862 and assumed command of the I Corps. One of his divisions, commanded by Brig. Gen. George G. Meade, made the only breakthrough at the Battle of Fredericksburg, but Reynolds did not reinforce Meade with his other two divisions and the attack failed; Reynolds did not receive a clear understanding from Brig. Gen. William B. Franklin about his role in the attack.[10] After the battle, Reynolds was promoted to major general of volunteers, with a date of rank of November 29, 1862.[11]

At the Battle of Chancellorsville in May 1863, Reynolds clashed with Maj. Gen. Hooker, his predecessor at I Corps, but by this time the commander of the Army of the Potomac. Hooker originally placed the I Corps on the extreme left of the Union line, southeast of Fredericksburg, hoping to threaten and distract the Confederate right. On May 2, Hooker changed his mind and ordered the corps to conduct a daylight march nearly 20 miles to swing around and become the extreme right flank of the army, to the northwest of the XI Corps. The march was delayed by faulty communications and by the need to move stealthily to avoid Confederate contact. Thus, the I Corps was not yet in position when the XI Corps was surprised and overrun by Lt. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's flank attack, a setback that destroyed Hooker's nerve for offensive action. Hooker called a council of war on May 4 in which Reynolds voted to proceed with the battle, but although the vote was three to two for offensive action, Hooker decided to retreat. Reynolds, who had gone to sleep after giving his proxy vote to Meade, woke up and muttered loud enough for Hooker to hear, "What was the use of calling us together at this time of night when he intended to retreat anyhow?" The 17,000-man I Corps was not engaged at Chancellorsville and suffered only 300 casualties during the entire campaign.[12]

Reynolds joined several of his fellow officers in urging that Hooker be replaced, in the same way he had spoken out against Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside after Fredericksburg. On the previous occasion, Reynolds wrote in a private letter, "If we do not get some one soon who can command an army without consulting 'Stanton and Halleck' at Washington, I do not know what will become of this Army." President Abraham Lincoln met with Reynolds in a private interview on June 2 and is believed to have asked him whether he would consider being the next commander of the Army of the Potomac. Reynolds supposedly replied that he would be willing to accept only if he were given a free hand and could be isolated from the political influences that had affected the Army commanders throughout the war. Unable to comply with his demands, Lincoln promoted the more junior George G. Meade to replace Hooker on June 28.[13]

Gettysburg

"The Fall of Reynolds" – drawing of Reynolds' death at Gettysburg

On the morning of July 1, 1863, Reynolds was commanding the "left wing" of the Army of the Potomac, with operational control over the I, III, and XI Corps, and Brig. Gen. John Buford's cavalry division. Buford occupied the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, and set up light defensive lines north and west of the town. He resisted the approach of two Confederate infantry brigades on the Chambersburg Pike until the nearest Union infantry, Reynolds' I Corps, began to arrive. Reynolds rode out ahead of the 1st Division, met with Buford, and then accompanied some of his soldiers, probably from Brig. Gen. Lysander Cutler's brigade, into the fighting at Herbst's Woods. Troops began arriving from Brig. Gen. Solomon Meredith's Iron Brigade, and as Reynolds was supervising the placement of the 2nd Wisconsin, he yelled at them, "Forward men! For God's sake forward!" At that moment he fell from his horse with a wound in the back of the upper neck, or lower head,[14] and died almost instantly. Command passed to his senior division commander, Maj. Gen. Abner Doubleday.

For the Union side, the death of John Reynolds meant more than the loss of an inspiring leader; it also removed from the equation the one person with enough vision and sense of purpose to manage this battle.
Noah Andre Trudeau, Gettysburg: A Testing of Courage[15]

The loss of General Reynolds was keenly felt by the army. He was loved by his men and respected by his peers. There are no recorded instances of negative comments made by his contemporaries.[16] Historian Shelby Foote wrote that many considered him "not only the highest ranking [sic] but also the best general in the army."[17] His death had a more immediate effect that day, however. By ratifying Buford's defensive plan and engaging his I Corps infantry, Reynolds essentially selected the location for the Battle of Gettysburg for Meade, turning a chance meeting engagement into a massive pitched battle, committing the Army of the Potomac to fight on that ground with forces that were initially numerically inferior to the Confederates that were concentrating there. In the command confusion that followed Reynolds' death, the two Union corps that reached the field were overwhelmed and forced to retreat through the streets of Gettysburg to the high ground south of town, where they were rallied by his old friend, Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock.[18]

Possible location of General Reynolds' death

Reynolds' body was immediately transported from Gettysburg to Taneytown, Maryland, and then to his birthplace, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, where he was buried on July 4, 1863.[6] Befitting his importance to the Union and his native state, he is memorialized by three statues in Gettysburg National Military Park (an equestrian statue on McPherson Ridge, one by John Quincy Adams Ward in the National Cemetery, and one on the Pennsylvania Memorial),[19] as well as one in front of the Philadelphia City Hall.[20]

Kate Hewitt had agreed with Reynolds that if he were killed in the war and they could not marry, she would join a convent. After he was buried, she traveled to Emmitsburg, Maryland, and joined the St. Joseph Central House of the Order of the Daughters of Charity.[21]

Death controversies

Historians disagree on the details of Reynolds' death, including the specific time (either 10:15 a.m. or 10:40–10:50 a.m.), the exact location (on East McPherson Ridge, near the 2nd Wisconsin Infantry, or West McPherson Ridge, near the 19th Indiana), and the source of the bullet (a Confederate infantryman, a Confederate sharpshooter, or friendly fire). One primary source was Sergeant Charles Henry Veil, his orderly and unit Color Guard, who described the events in a letter in 1864 and then contradicted some of the details in another letter 45 years later. A letter from Reynolds' sister, Jennie, stated that the wound had a downward trajectory from the neck, implying that he was shot from above, presumably a sharpshooter in a tree or barn. Historians Bruce Catton and Glenn Tucker make firm assertions that a sharpshooter was responsible; Stephen Sears credits volley fire from the 7th Tennessee against the 2nd Wisconsin; Edwin Coddington cites the sister's letter and finds the sharpshooter theory to be partly credible, but leans towards Sears' conclusion; Harry W. Pfanz agrees that the location was behind the 2nd Wisconsin, but makes no judgment about the source of the fire. Steve Sanders, writing in Gettysburg magazine, suggested the possibility of friendly fire based on some accounts, and concludes that it is as equally likely as enemy fire.[22]


Image result for gen. john reynolds monument, lancaster, pa


76 Illinois Infantry "Last Officer" Pinback

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A great pin back with a photo of Sylvanus C. Munhall, the last officer survivor of the 71 officers of the 76 Illinois Infantry.  In the middle of the pin back is S.C.Munhill with a child.  Written around the photo is "S.C. Munhall (Urchin) 89 - Last Survivor of 71 Officers - 76th Illinois".  The size is approximately 1 3/8 inches wide.  Munhall mustered in to the 76th Illinois Infantry on August 22, 1862 and mustered out on July 22, 1865.  He lived until 1943.


History of the 76th Illinois Infantry

 The seventy-sixth Illinois Volunteer Infantry was organized at Kankakee, Illinois, in August, 1862, by Colonel A. W. Mack, and was mustered in August 22d, 1862. Immediately after its muster it was ordered to Columbus, Kentucky, at which place it arrived August 29th, and soon after was armed with Enfield Rifle Muskets Remained at Columbus, drilling and doing fatigue and picket duty, until October 4th, when the Regiment was ordered to Bolivar, Tenn., by rail, at which place it arrived October 5th, and camped near the city until November 3d, when the Regiment with other troops was moved to La Grange, Tenn., and remained there until November 28th, when it was sent with General Grant on his campaign along the Mississippi Central Railroad; was at Holly Springs on the 29th and at Waterford on the 30th, doing its part in driving Price's army southwest.

The Fourth Division of the Thirteenth Army Corps, to which the Seventy-sixth belonged, remained near Waterford contending with fierce storms and fathomless mud until December 11th, when it continued its march southward, crossing the Tallahatchie River, passing through Abbyville and Oxford, and halting near Springdale, until December 22d, when the information was received that the Rebel General VanDorn had captured Holly Springs in the rear of the army and destroyed a large quantity of supplies and cut off all communication with the North.

The entire command was about faced and proceeded northward, living off the country and at times on extremely short rations. After several days slow marching and much speculation in the entire absence of northern news as to what was to become of the regiment and the army and the country, Holly Springs was entered on the 5th of January, 1863, at which place it remained until January 10th, witnessing many extensive conflagrations.

The Seventy-sixth was the last regiment leaving the city. It marched out about sunset, and the Rebels hovering around in the vicinity occupied the city immediately upon its exit. The Regiment arrived at Moscow on the evening of January 11th and remained there until February 5th, on full rations. At this place the Regiment received official information of the resignation of Col. Mack, who was at that time absent from the Regiment. Lieut. Col. Busey was soon after promoted to Colonel.

On February 5th, the camp of the Regiment was moved, through snow and mud, about ten miles, to the village of Lafayette, where it remained until March 10th, when after a three days' march it arrived at Memphis, Tenn., where it remained until May 13th, when it embarked with other troops on a fleet of steamers and moved down the Mississippi River. The steamer Fort Wayne carrying the Seventy-sixth, was fired into in the night by a band of Guerrillas from the Arkansas shore. Two men were wounded and the boat disabled. The Regiment landed in the morning and burned the buildings on the plantations in the vicinity. The disabled boat was towed down the river with the fleet to Young's Point, Louisiana, where it landed May 17th.

On the 18th the Regiment marched across the Point to the river below Vicksburg and embarked for Grand Gulf, and returned to Young's Point on the 29th and immediately embarked for Chicasaw Bayou, on the Yazoo River, at which place it debarked on the same day; was engaged in closing up the lines in the rear of Vicksburg until after the charge, when it was placed on the left of the besieging lines, and bravely held its place close under the Rebel guns until the final surrender July 4th. On the 5th of July the Regiment moved with Sherman's army against Jackson, Miss., skirmishing with the enemy at Big Black River and at Champion Hills. At Jackson the Rebels under Johnson made a stand and engaged our forces from the 12th to the 16th, the Seventy-sixth occupying the extreme right of the attacking forces.

On the morning of the 17th the city was found vacated by the Rebels and the Union troops occupied it immediately. The Regiment left Jackson July 21st and arrived at Vicksburg on the 23d, remaining there until August 11th, when it embarked and moved down the river to Natchez, landing there on the 12th. Remained there in camp until the latter part of November, when it was ordered back to Vicksburg, where it went into camp about eight miles from the city at Camp Cowan. Enjoyed life at this camp until January 31, 1864, then moved about three miles to Camp Hebron. On February 3d the Seventy-sixth started with General Sherman on his Meridian campaign and was on the move continually until March 4th, when the expedition returned and the Regiment rested at Camp Hebron until April 5th, when it moved to Big Black River Bridge, and was on duty there until April 27th, when it returned to Vicksburg and camped on the high hills surrounding the city.

On the 4th of May the Regiment accompanied an expedition, commanded by General McArthur, to Yazoo City, and participated in the battles of Benton, Vaughn's Station and Deasonville, and drove the enemy from Yazoo City, and occupied the place several days. On the night of May 17 a large portion of the city was burned. The Regiment returned to Vicksburg May 21, and occupied its camp on the hills until June 26, when it was moved to Mount Albans, on the railroad between Vicksburg and the Big Black River. On the 28th moved back to Vicksburg and camped near its old quarters. On July 1, 1864, the Regiment started on an expedition to Jackson, commanded by General Slocum. On its return the command was met between Jackson and Clinton by the enemy, and a sharp battle was fought on the 6th, and renewed on the 7th, when the Seventy-sixth, which bore a prominent part in the engagement, was cut off from the balance of the command, but cut its way out, losing one hundred and two men, sixteen of whom were reported killed and left on the field, and eighty-six wounded and missing. The Regiment returned to Vicksburg July 9, much fatigued. On July 29 the Regiment embarked, and was run down the river on a marine boat to Morganzia; landed there, and remained camped along the levee until August 23, when it was embarked and was transported down the river to Port Hudson; landed and marched, with five days' rations, in great haste, night and day, to Clinton, expecting to annihilate the enemy in that vicinity, but he fled before the Yankee hosts. The Regiment returned to Morganzia, arriving there August 29, foot-sore and weary.

On September 3 the Regiment embarked on the steamer Nebraska, and moved up the Mississippi River to the mouth of White River, landed and camped on the Arkansas shore, and remained until October 18, when it was ordered to Memphis, Tenn., but returned October 28, and occupied quarters there until November 7, when it embarked and moved up White River to Duvall's Bluff, Arkansas, where it built neat log cabins, and fixed to stay; but, in obedience to orders, it broke up its pleasant camp on the 28th , embarked, and was landed at Memphis, Tenn., on the 30th, and camped on the environs of the city; remained there until December 31, 1864, and was then ordered to embark on the steamer Niagara for New Orleans, at which place it arrived January 4, 1865, and went into camp a few miles above the city, at Kenner, behind the levee, where the mud was almost fathomless. Remained there until February 12, when the Regiment was ordered to embark on Gulf steamers and proceed across the Gulf to Mobile Point. The Regiment was divided, and carried on three different crafts. The George Peabody carried the Regimental Headquarters, with four companies of the Seventy-sixth, and parts of other regiments, and a large number of horses, mules and wagons. A terrible storm on the Gulf nearly wrecked the craft. The horses, mules and wagons were consigned to the deep, and the boat was barely gotten back to the Mississippi River with its human freight. Went back to New Orleans, crossed over to Lake Pontchartrain, embarked on the steamer Alice Vivian, and moved by the lakes to Fort Morgan, and from there to Fort Barrancas, near Pensacola, Florida, where the Regiment was again united, February 18, and went into camp, and remained there until March 11, when the camp was moved to Pensacola. On March 20, the Regiment started with General Steel's expedition to Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, near Mobile Alabama. Traveled through pine swamps, corduroying the quicksand roads as it moved along, and fighting the enemy in front, until April 1, when the Army approached Blakely, and on the 2nd drove the enemy inside his fortifications. General Steel's forces united with General Canby's and General Granger's, from Fort Morgan. On April 8 Spanish Fort was captured, and April 9 the Seventy-sixth participated in the charge on Fort Blakely, capturing the entire garrison. The colors of the Seventy-sixth were the first planted on the enemy's works. The Regiment lost in this, the last battle of the war, seventeen killed and eighty-one wounded. Among the latter was the colonel of the Regiment, who was painfully wounded while gallantly leading his men in the assault.

The Regiment camped inside the fortifications until April 20, when it was transported to Mobile. On the 22d of April the regiment accompanied a fleet of steamers, loaded with soldiers, up the Alabama River, General Steel in command; landed at Selma, Alabama, April 28; remained there until May 11, and was then ordered back to Mobile, and camped near the city. Remained there doing duty until the latter part of June, when it was ordered to Galveston, Texas, where it remained until July 22, and was then mustered out, and ordered to Chicago, Illinois, where it was paid off and disbanded August 4, 1865.

The Regiment had traveled over ten thousand miles. Received one hundred and fifty-six recruits, who were transferred, on its muster out, to the Thirty-seventh Illinois Infantry. The Regiment's commanders were: Colonel Alonzo W. Mack- Mustered in August 22, 1862. Resigned January 7, 1863 Colonel Samuel T. Busey - Mustered in August 22, 1862. Promoted May 11, 1863 The Regiment's size of approximately 1000 men was comprised of the following organizations: Regimental Headquarters - Field and Staff Ten Companies: Company A, Company B, Company C, Company D, Company E, Company F, Company G, Company H, Company I, Company K, and Unassigned Recruits.

Summary of Campaigns, Battles and Engagements:

  • General Grant's campaign along the Mississippi Central Railroad - November 1862 - January 1863
    • engaged at Holly Springs and Waterford - November 29 30
  • Siege and fall of Vicksburg - May - July 1863
    • assaults on Vicksburg May 19 22
    • engaged in closing up the lines in the rear until after the charge
    • placed on the left of the besieging lines
    • held its place close under the Rebel guns until their final surrender July 4, 1863
  • General Sherman's campaign against Jackson, Mississippi - July 1863
    • advance on Jackson - July 4 10
    • skirmishes at Big Black River and Champion Hills - July 4 5
    • assault on Jackson - engaged by the Rebels under Johnson - July 12 16
    • regiment occupied the extreme right of the attacking forces
  • Expedition to Harrisonburg , Louisiana - September 1863
    • capture of Port Beauregaard - September 4
  • General Sherman's Meridian campaign - February - March 1864
    • Champion Hills - February 5
    • Meridian - February 14 15
  • General McArthur's expedition to Yazoo City - May 1864
    • actions at Benton, Vaughn's Station, Deasonville , Big Black River Bridge, Yazoo City
  • General Slocum s expedition to Jackson, Mississippi - July 1864
    • engaged between Jackson and Clinton, Louisiana - lost 102 men (16 killed, 86 wounded and missing)
  • Expedition to Clinton, Louisiana - August 1864
  • Moves to White River, Duvall's Bluff, Arkansas, Memphis - September - December 1864
  • Moves to New Orleans, Mobile Point, Fort Barrancas , Florida - December 1864 - February 1865
  • General Steel's expedition from Pensacola - March - April 1865
    • occupation of Pollard - March 26
    • siege of Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely , Alabama - April 1 8
    • capture of Spanish Fort - April 8
    • assault and capture of Fort Blakely
    • the last battle of the war - April 9
      lost 17 killed and 81 wounded. Colors of the 76th the first planted on the enemy works.
    • occupation of Mobile - April 12
    • occupation of Selma, Alabama - April 28 - May 11
  • Move to Galveston, Texas - June - July 1865
    • mustered out July 22. Ordered to Chicago, Illinois for pay and disbandment

ORGANIZATIONAL ASSIGNMENTS:

Attached to:

District of Columbus, Kentucky August 22 to October, 1862

District of Jackson, Mississippi

  • 2nd Brigade, 4th Division to November, 1862

Department of the Tennessee

  • 2nd Brigade, 4th Division, Right Wing, 13th Army Corps to December, 1862
  • 2nd Brigade, 4th Division, 17th Army Corps to January, 1863
  • 2nd Brigade, 4th Division, 16th Army Corps to July, 1863
  • 2nd Brigade, 4th Division, 13th Army Corps to August, 1863
  • 2nd Brigade, 4th Division, 17th Army Corps to April, 1864
  • 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 17th Army Corps to August, 1864

Department of the Gulf

  • 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 19th Army Corps to December, 1864

Military Division - West Mississippi

  • 2nd Brigade, Reserve Division to February, 1865
  • 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, Reserve Corps to February, 1865
  • 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, 13th Army Corps, New to July, 1865

Known Regimental Casualties - 426

  • Killed and Mortally Wounded in Battle - 52
  • Wounded & Missing in Battle - 167
  • Died of Disease - 207


1901 First Defender Monument Dedication Reading, Pennsylvania Pin Back

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A super pin back commerating the 1901 First Defenders Monument Dedication on July 4, 1901 at Reading, Pennsylvania.  The pin back is approximately 1 1/4 inches wide.  The monument is in the middle of the pin back.  A U.S. flag is on the right side and a Union officer is on the left side.  Written around the edge of the pin back is "Dedication First Defenders Monument - July 4, 1901".  The pin back was made by the Keystone Badge Company of Reading, Pennsylvania. as noted on the back of the pin back.


Civil War Musicians National Association Pin Back

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A nice pin ack worn by a member of the Civil War Musicians National Association.  The pin back is approximately 1 1/4 inches wide.  A drum with crossed sticks is in the middle of the pin back.  The pin back was made by the M.C. lilley Company of Columbus, Ohio as noted on the back of the pin back.


1902 Wichita, Kansas Blue - Gray Reunion Pin Back

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A wonderful, large pin back from the 1902 Wichita, Kansas Blue - Gray reunion held on September 22 - 27, 1902.  This great pin back has an armed Confederate soldier shaking hands with an armed Union soldier.  The U.S. flag is in the back ground.  Written around the edge of the pin back is "19th Annual State Reunion - Wichita, Kan. Sept. 22d - 27th, 1902".  Also on the edge of the pin back are sun flowers.  The pin back is approximately 1 3/4 inches wide.  The pin back was made by the Baltimore Badge & Novelty COmpany, Baltimore, Maryland.  The pin back is very clean and nice.

25 Massachusetts Colonel Josiah Pickett Pin Back

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A nice pin back with a photograph of Colonel Josiah Pickett of the 25th Massachusetts Infantry on it.  The pin back is approximately 1 1/2 inches wide and is in good condition.  


From the "Springfield Republican," page 5, 15 January 1908:
Gen. Josiah Pickett Dead.
Was Colonel of 25th Massachusetts and Under Military Arrest for Most of His Life.
---
Gen. Josiah Pickett, one of the most prominent officers commanding a regiment during the civil war, colonel of the 25th Massachusetts regiment, and one of Worcester's most prominent citizens, died at 9 o'clock yesterday morning at his home in Worcester of a general breaking down of his constitution.
During the war Gen. Pickett was placed under military arrest and this was never removed. The adjutant whose duty it would have been to record the arrest was killed in the conflict, and because of the heroism displayed by Worcester's soldier the charges against him were entirely forgotten. He was always rather proud of this distinction and refused to allow any movement to formally release him from the arrest ordered by Gen. Stannard but never carried into effect.

The announcement of Gen. Pickett's death was received with sincere regret by a host of people extending far beyond the ranks of the old Soldiers.
The flags on the Worcester city hall and on the copmmon were lowered to half-mast because of his record as a public official, and the flag on the Grand Army hall was also half-masted.
Arrangements for the funeral have not been completed, but the hour is fixed.... Burial will be in Rural cemetery.

Josiah Pickett was born in Beverly, November 22, 1822, the son of Josiah and Mary (Cressey) Pickett, and was the sixth decendant of Nicholas Pickett, who landed in Marblehead in 1647. He was married in Lowell in December, 1847, to Miss Elizabeth Burnham, who lived until two years ago.
He went to Worcester in 1855, and since that time his history had been a part of the history of the city.

When there a short time he joined thw Worcester city guards, then commanded by Capt.(later Col.) George H. Ward, for whom the Worcester Grand Army post is named.

 

94 New York Infantry 1901 Reunion Pinback

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A neat pinback worn by veterans of the 94th new York Infantry at their 1901 reunion held in Watertown, New York.  The pinback is a white color with "94th N.Y. V. Vols. Reunion - Watertown, N.Y. - March 14, 1901".  The pinback was made by the Whitehead & Hoag Company, Newark, New Jersey.  The pinback is approximately 7/8 inches wide.

94th Infantry Regiment
Civil War
Bell Rifles; Bell Jefferson Rifles; Sackett's Harbor Regiment

History

Mustered in: March 10, 1862
Mustered out: July 18, 1865

The following is taken from New York in the War of the Rebellion, 3rd ed. Frederick Phisterer. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company, 1912.
W. B. Camp received authority in October, 1861, as Colonel, to recruit a regiment of infantry. He was succeeded, November 4, 1861, by Gen. John J. Viele. This regiment was organized at Sackett's Harbor January 6, 1862, and there mustered in the service of the United States for three years, March 10, 1862, with Henry K. Viele as Colonel. March17, 1863, the regiment was consolidated into five companies, A, B, C, D and E, and received the 105th Infantry as its Companies F, G, H, I and K. August 10, 1864, about 100 men of the 97th Infantry were transferred to it. At the expiration of its term of enlistment the men entitled thereto were discharged, and the regiment retained in service.
The companies were recruited in Jefferson county, and the regiment left the State March 18, 1862; it served in General Wadsworth's command, Military District of Washington, from March, 1862; in 1st Brigade, 2d Division, Department of Rappahannock, from May, 1862; in same brigade and division, 3d Corps, Army of Virginia, from June 26, 1862; in same brigade and division, 1st Corps, Army of the Potomac, from September 12, 1862; in 1st Brigade, same division and corps, from December, 1862; as Provost Guard, Army of the Potomac, from May, 1863; in 1st Brigade, 2d Division, 1st Corps, Army of the Potomac, again from June, 1863; in the District of Annapolis, Md., 8th Corps, from December, 1863; in the 3d Brigade, 4th Division, 5th Corps, Army of the Potomac, from May 26, 1864; in the 1st Brigade, 2d Division, 5th Corps, from May 30, 1864; in the 1st Brigade, 3d Division, 5th Corps, from June, 1864; in the 2d Brigade, 3d Division, 5th Corps, from June 11, 1864; in the 3d Brigade, same division and corps, from November, 1864; and it was honorably discharged and mustered out, commanded by Col. Adrian R. Root, July 18, 1865, near Washington, D. C.
During its service the regiment lost by death, killed in action, 3 officers, 72 enlisted men; of wounds received in action, 1 officer, 39 enlisted men; of disease and other causes, I officer, 138 enlisted men; total, 5 officers, 249 enlisted men; aggregate, 254; of whom 37 enlisted men died in the hands of the enemy.

The following is taken from The Union army: a history of military affairs in the loyal states, 1861-65 -- records of the regiments in the Union army -- cyclopedia of battles -- memoirs of commanders and soldiers. Madison, WI: Federal Pub. Co., 1908. volume II.
Ninety-fourth Infantry.—Cols., Henry K. Viele, Adrian R. Root; Lieut.-Cols., Colvin Littlefield, John A. Kress, Samuel Moffatt; Majs., William R. Hanford, John A. Kress, D. C. Tomlinson, Sam-uel S. Moffatt, John A. McMahon, Henry P. Fish, Byron Parsons. The 94th, the "Bell Rifles." recruited in Jefferson county, was mustered into the U. S. service at Sacket's Harbor, March 10, 1862, and left the state for Washington on the 18th. It served in the defenses of Washington under Gen. Wadsworth, was assigned to the 1st brigade, 2nd division, Department of the Rappahannock in May, and to the 3d corps, Army of Virginia, June 26, with which it participated in Gen. Pope's Virginia campaign, losing 147 in killed, wounded and missing. On Sept. 12, with the same brigade, and division, the regiment was attached to the 1st corps, was active at South mountain and Antietam, and in December at Fredericksburg. The winter was passed in camp near Falmouth and in March, 1863; the regiment was consolidated into a battalion of five companies, to which were added five companies of the l05th N. Y. infantry. The regiment served for a month as provost guard and in June, 1863, returned to the 1st corps with its old brigade and division, and suffered the heaviest loss of its service at Gettysburg-245 killed, wounded or missing. It shared in the Mine Run fiasco and in December was ordered to Annapolis, where it became a part of the 8th corps. During the winter a large number of its members reenlisted and the regiment continued in service as a veteran organization. In the Wilderness campaign it served with the 5th corps, being engaged at Cold Harbor, Totopotomy and White Oak swamp. It moved with the Army of the Potomac to Petersburg and was closely engaged at the Weldon railroad, losing 178 killed, wounded or missing. On Aug. 10, 1864, the regiment was joined by the veterans and recruits of the 97th N. Y. infantry and remained on duty before Petersburg until the end of the siege, after which it was active at Five Forks, and was present at Lee's surrender. The 94th was mustered out at Washington, July 18; 1865, having lost 116 by death from wounds and 138 from other causes, of whom 37 died in imprisonment. Maj. Fish was killed in action at Five Forks.


147 New York Volunteers Celluloid Badge

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A nice celluloid pin back worn by veterans of the 147th New York Volunteer Infantry at reunions and parades.  The celluloid is approximately 1 1/4 inches wide.  The pin back is red in color with "147th N.Y. Vols." written on the it.  The pin back was made by the Whitehead & Hoag Company of newark, New Jersey.


 147th Infantry Regiment

Civil War
Oswego Regiment

History

Mustered in: September 22, 1862
Mustered out: June 7, 1865

The following is taken from New York in the War of the Rebellion, 3rd ed. Frederick Phisterer. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company, 1912.
Colonel Andrew S. Warner received authority, August 25, 1862, to recruit a regiment in the then 21st Senatorial District of the State; it was organized at Oswego, and there mustered in the service of the United States for three years September 22 and 23, 1862. January 25, 1865, it received by transfer the veterans and recruits of the 76th Infantry not mustered out with their regiment. June 5, 1865, the men not to be mustered out with the regiment were transferred to the 91st Infantry.
The companies were recruited principally: A, B and I at Oswego; C at Richland, Albion and Williamstown; D at Fulton, Granby and Volney; E at Sandy Creek, Redfield, Boyleston and Orwell; F at Mexico, Palermo and New Haven; G at Oswego and Scriba; H at Constantia, Parish, Amboy and West Monroe, and K at Oswego, Scriba and Fulton.
The regiment left the State September 25, 1862; it served in the 2d Brigade, defenses of Washington, north of the Potomac, from September, 1862; in the Provisional Brigade, Provost Guard, Army of the Potomac, from December, 1862; in the 3d Brigade, 1st Division, 1st Corps, from January, 1863; in the 2d Brigade, 1st Division, 1st Corps, from March, 1863; in the 2d Brigade, 4th Division, 5th Corps, from March, 1864; in the 3d Brigade, 2d Division, 5th Corps, from August, 1864; in the 3d Brigade, 3d Division, 5th Corps, from September, 1864; and, under Col. Francis C. Miller, it was honorably discharged and mustered out June 7, 1865, near Washington, D. C.
During its service the regiment lost by death, killed in action, 5 officers, 107 enlisted men; of wounds received in action, 4 officers, 52 enlisted men; of disease and other causes, 2 officers, 177 enlisted men; total, 11 officers, 336 enlisted men; aggregate, 347; of whom 71 enlisted men died in the hands of the enemy.

The following is taken from The Union army: a history of military affairs in the loyal states, 1861-65 -- records of the regiments in the Union army -- cyclopedia of battles -- memoirs of commanders and soldiers. Madison, WI: Federal Pub. Co., 1908. volume II.
One Hundred and Forty-seventh infantry.—Cols., Andrew S. Warner, John G. Butler, Francis C. Miller; Lieut.-Cols., John G. Butler, Francis C. Miller, George Harney, James Coey; Majs., Francis C. Miller, George Harney, Dudley Farling, Alex. R. Penfield, James Coey. This was an Oswego county regiment, organized at Oswego and there mustered into the U. S. service on Sept. 23, 1862. It received by transfer on Jan. 25, 1865, the remnant of the 76th N. Y. The regiment left the state on Sept. 25, 1862, and after serving for a time in the defenses of Washington, north of the Potomac and in the provisional brigade, provost guard, Army of the Potomac, it was placed in the 1st division, 1st corps. It was under fire for the first time at Fitzhugh's crossing below Fredericksburg, one of the preliminary movements of the Chancellorsville campaign, losing a few men killed and wounded. It was in reserve at Chancellorsville and sustained no losses. In the 2nd (Cutler's) brigade, 1st (Wadsworth's) division 1st corps, and commanded by Lieut.-Col. Miller, it marched on the field of Gettysburg. "The brigade— Cutler's—was the first infantry to arrive on that field and to it fell the honor of opening that famous battle, the first volley coming from the rifles of the 56th Pa. When Cutler's troops were forced back, the order to retire failed to reach the 147th, as Col. Miller fell wounded and senseless just as he received it, and so the gallant band, under Maj. Harney, continued to hold its ground. A temporary success near by enabled the regiment to retire in good order; but not all, for of the 380 who entered that fight, 76 were killed or mortally wounded, 146 were wounded, and 79 were missing; total, 301." (Fox's, Regimental Losses in the Civil War.) The regiment took part in the Mine Run campaign—the last campaign of the 1st corps—sustaining a few casualties, and then went into winter quarters at Brandy Station. In March, 1864, when the 1st corps was broken up, it was assigned to the 3d brigade, 4th (Wadsworth's) division, 5th (Warren's) corps, and was actively engaged in all the battles of the corps during Grant's bloody campaign of 1864-65. While in the 5th corps it took part in the battle of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna river, Totopotomy, Cold Harbor, first assault on Petersburg, siege of Petersburg, Weldon railroad, Poplar Spring Church, Boydton road, Hatcher's run, White Oak ridge, Five Forks and Appomattox. The total casualties of the regiment from the opening of the campaign in May, 1864, until Lee's surrender, amounted to 477 killed, wounded and missing. It was mustered out near Washington, D. C, June 7, 1865, under. Col. Miller. The total enrollment of the regiment during service was 2,102, of whom 581 were killed or wounded; 9 officers and 159 men were killed or mortally wounded; 2 officers and 177 men died of disease and other causes; total deaths, 11 officers and 336 men.


1921 New Castle, Indiana State Encampment Celluloid Badge/Bookmark

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One of the more colorful badges from the Department of Indiana is this beautiful rose celluloid bookmark which was part of the badge for 1921.  On the celluloid bookmark is a rose with a Grand Army of the Republic membership badge printed in gold tones over the rose.  Written in gold color ink is "42nd Annual Encampment G.A.R. - Dept. of Indiana - New Castle - The Rose City, 1921 - Souvenir Badge and Bookmark".This bookmark was made by the Whitehead & Hoag Company of Newark, New Jersey as noted under the word "Bookmark" on the front of the badge.There are no chips or cracks on the celluloid and it has great color.  


Newton, North Carolina Monument Dedication Pin Back

A super pin back from the 1907 Confederate Monument dedication at Newton, North Carolina.  The pin back has a likeness of the monument with "Confederate Monument - Newton, N.C. - Aug. 15, 1907" written on the front.  The pin back was made by the St. louis Button Company, St. Louis, Missouri as noted on the back of the pin back.  The pin back is approximately 1 1/4 inches across.  newton, North Carolina is south east of Hickory and north west of Shelbyville.
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1899 U.C.V. Chester, South Carolina Pinback

A nice pinback from the 1899 United Confederate Veteran South Carolina state reunion held in Chester, South Carolina.  The pinback is approximately 1 3/4 inches wide.  A likeness of Jefferson Davis is in the middle with a Confederate battle flag and a Confederate third national flag on both sides.  Written on the pinback is "U.C.V. Reunion, 1899 - Chester, S.C. - July 26 - 27".  The pinback was made by the Whitehead & Hoag Company, Newark, New Jersey as stamped on the paper insert in the back.  

1899 Charleston, SC Winnie Davis Pinback

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A neat pinback issued at the 1899 United Confederate Veterans reunion held in Charleston, South Carolina.  The pinback is approximately 1 1/2 inches wide.  An image of Winnie Davis is in the center of the pinback.  Written around the image is "United Confederate Veteran Reunion - May 1899.  In Memory of Miss Winnie Davis - The daughter of the Confederacy - Born June 27, 1864-- Died Sept. 18, 1898. - Charleston, S.C.".


Florida UCV Joseph E. Finegan, Camp No. 1514, Live Oak, Florida Pin Back

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A hard to find pin back badge for the Live Oak, Florida United Confederate Veteran Camp No. 1514.  The pin back is approximately 1 3/4 inches wide.  Written on the pin back is "Joseph E. Finegan Camp - No. 1514, U.C.V.".  The Confederate third national flag and the Confederate battle flag are crossed in the center of the pin back.  The pin back was made by the Whitehead & Hoag Company, Newark, New Jersey.  Florida Confederate Veteran items are extremely hard to find!


United Confederate Veterans Pin Back

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A nice pin back worn by Confederate veterans at reunions.  This pin back has a battle flag on it with "U C V" going around the flag.  The pin back is made by the Whitehead & Hoag Company of Newark, NJ.


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